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Young healthy individuals develop lack of energy when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks: a phenomenological analysis
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1680-1000
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, no 3, 565-571 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the past 20 years, a sedentary lifestyle has become more common and simultaneously the consumption of energy-dense food has increased. These are two major risk factors associated with the increase of overweight and obesity, which is found in all ages over the world. The low well-being reported by obese individuals could be associated with increased food intake or it might be a specific consequence of obesity and lack of physical fitness. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of the phenomenon, adopting an obesity provoking behaviour, by increasing energy intake and simultaneously having a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks in healthy, normal-weight individuals of both genders. Eighteen healthy individuals (12 men and 6 women; median age 23, range 21-44 years) were included in an intervention, with a doubled energy intake and a maximum physical activity of 5000 steps per day during 4 weeks. After completing this intervention the participants were interviewed and asked to describe their experience during the past 4 weeks. A phenomenological approach was used to gain understanding of the phenomenon and analyses of the transcripts were performed in four steps according to Giorgis method. The main essence of the phenomenon, adopting an obesity provoking behaviour, was found to be lack of energy, related to emotional life, relations and life habits. Lack of energy emerged from five structures: influenced self-confidence, commitment to oneself and others, managing eating, feelings of tiredness and physical impact. These five structures were manifested through 12 constituents. These lifestyle changes decreased the sense of well-being in nonobese healthy individuals of both genders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd , 2010. Vol. 24, no 3, 565-571 p.
Keyword [en]
eating, energy intake, food habits, health, lifestyle, weight gain
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58951DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2009.00750.xISI: 000281000800018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-58951DiVA: diva2:347799
Available from: 2010-09-03 Created: 2010-09-03 Last updated: 2017-12-12
In thesis
1. Hyper-alimentation - effects on health and well-being.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hyper-alimentation - effects on health and well-being.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The general aim of this thesis was to prospectively examine the effects on health and well-being when healthy normal weight individuals increase their energy intake, mainly from fast food and simultaneously adopt a sedentary lifestyle.

This thesis is based upon a prospective experimental study design where 18 healthy normal weight individuals, 12 men and 6 women, aged 26 (6.6) years, increased their energy intake with in average 70 % during four weeks. Simultaneously their physical activity was limited to a maximum of 5000 steps per day. An age and gender matched control group (n=18), was recruited and asked not to change their eatingand physical activity habits for four weeks. Long-term follow-up measurements were performed after 6 and 12 months and 2.5 years after the intervention.

During the intervention body weight increased with 6.4 (2.8) kg and measurements of body composition showed an increase of both fat mass and fat free mass after the intervention. Lower physical and mental health scores on SF-36 as well as depressive symptoms were found compared to baseline. They were temporary and when followed up 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned to baseline values, despite a somewhat increased body weight. The main essence of adopting an obesity provoking behaviour was lack of energy emerging from five structures: influenced self-confidence, commitment to oneself and others, managing eating, feelings of tiredness and physical impact. Laboratory measurements showed an increase of ALT above reference limits in 14 of the 18 participants during the intervention and HTGC increased, although this was not related to the increase in ALT levels. Twelve months after the intervention an increase of body weight with 1.5 (2.4) kg was found compared to baseline (p=0.018), fat free mass was unchanged compared to baseline while fat mass had increased, + 1.4 (1.9) kg (p=0.01). Two and a half years after the intervention an increase of body weight with 3.1 (4.0) kg was found compared to baseline (p=0.01), while there was no change in controls compared to baseline, + 0.1 (2.5) kg (p=0.88).

Hyper-alimentation and limited physical activity during a short-term period of 4 weeks is sufficient to temporarily induce worsened HRQoL, cause depressive symptoms and lack of energy in healthy normal weight individuals. There were also temporary but clear effects on biochemical markers, suggesting that hyperalimentation per se can induce profound ALT elevations in less than 4 weeks. During the intervention both fat mass and fat-free mass increased while after 12 months there was only an increase of fat mass which was greater than expected from epidemiological studies. The marked difference between the increase in body weight in the intervention- and control group at 2.5 years also raises the question whether there is a long-term effect of increasing fat mass after a short period of hyperalimentation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 86 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1200
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60171 (URN)978-91-7393-331-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-10-01, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet,, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-10-11 Created: 2010-10-07 Last updated: 2010-10-11Bibliographically approved

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Ernersson, ÅsaLindström, TorbjörnNyström, FredrikHollman Frisman, Gunilla

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