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High-rate deposition of amorphous and nanocomposite Ti-Si-C multifunctional coatings
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1785-0864
Impact Coatings AB.
Impact Coatings AB.
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2010 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, no 2, 299-305 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amorphous (a) and nanocomposite Ti–Si–C coatings were deposited at rates up to 16 μm/h by direct current magnetron sputtering from a Ti3SiC2 compound target, using an industrial pilot-plant system, onto high-speed steel, Si, and SiO2 substrates as well as Ni-plated Cu cylinders, kept at a temperature of 200 or 270 °C. Electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that TiC/a-C/a-SiC nanocomposites were formed consisting of textured TiC nanocrystallites (nc) embedded in a matrix of a-C and a-SiC. Elastic recoil detection analysis showed that coatings deposited at a target-to-substrate distance of 2 cm and an Ar pressure of 10 mTorr have a composition close to that of the Ti3SiC2 compound target, as explained by ballistic transport of the species. Increased target-to-substrate distance from 2 cm to 8 cm resulted in a higher carbon-to-titanium ratio in the coatings than for the Ti3SiC2 compound target, due to different gas-phase scattering properties between the sputtered species. The coating microstructure could be modified from nanocrystalline to predominantly amorphous by changing the pressure and target-to-substrate conditions to 4 mTorr and 2 cm, respectively. A decreased pressure from 10 mTorr to 4 or 2 mTorr at a target-to-substrate distance of 2 cm decreased the deposition rate up to a factor of ~7 as explained by resputtering and an increase in the plasma sheath thickness. The coatings exhibited electrical resistivity in the range 160–800 μΩ cm, contact resistance down to 0.8 mΩ at a contact force of 40 N, and nanoindentation hardness in the range of 6–38 GPa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2010. Vol. 205, no 2, 299-305 p.
Keyword [en]
Nanocomposites, TiSiC coatings, pilot plant, magnetron sputtering, resistivity, electron microscopy
National Category
Physical Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-59241DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2010.06.051ISI: 000282542300010OAI: diva2:350158
Original Publication: Jonas Lauridsen, Per Eklund, T. Joelsson, H. Ljungcrantz, Å. Öberg, E. Lewin, U. Jansson, Manfred Beckers, Hans Högberg and Lars Hultman, High-rate deposition of amorphous and nanocomposite Ti-Si-C multifunctional coatings, 2010, Surface & Coatings Technology, (205), 2, 299-305. Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. Available from: 2010-09-10 Created: 2010-09-10 Last updated: 2015-01-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. TiC-based nanocomposite coatings as electrical contacts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>TiC-based nanocomposite coatings as electrical contacts
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This Thesis concerns the advanced surface engineering of novel TiC-based nanocomposite and AgI electrical contact materials. The objective is to make industrially applicable coatings that are electrically conductive and wear-resistant, and have a low coefficient of friction. I have studied electrical contact systems consisting of a Cu substrate with a Ni diffusion barrier and loading support, and a conductive top coating. The contact systems were characterized by x-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy, analytical electron microscopy, ion beam analysis, nanoindentation, resistivity, and contact resistance measurements. Nc-TiC/a-C/SiC nanocomposite coatings consisting of nanocrystalline (nc) TiC embedded in an amorphous (a) matrix of C/SiC were deposited by magnetron sputtering with rates as high as 16 μm/h. These coatings have a contact resistance comparable with Ag at high loads (~800 N) and a resistivity of 160-770 μΩcm. The electrical properties of the contact can be improved by adding Ag to make nc-Ag/nc-TiC/a-SiC nanocomposites. It is possible to tailor the size and distribution of the Ag grains by varying the fraction of amorphous matrix, so as to achieve good conductivity in all directions in the coatings. Ti-Si-C-Ag coatings have a contact resistance that is one magnitude larger than Ag at lower loads (~1 N), and a resistivity of 77-142 μΩcm. The conductivity of the matrix phase can be increased by substituting Ge, Sn or Cu for Si, which also reduces the Ag grain growth. This yields coatings with a contact resistance twice as high as Ag at loads of 1 N, and a resistivity 274-1013 μΩcm. The application of a conductive top layer of Ag-Pd upon a Ti-Si-C-Ag:Pd coating can further reduce the contact resistance. For barrier materials against Cu interdiffusion, it is shown that conventional electroplating of Ni can be replaced with sputtering of Ni or Ti layers. This is an advantage since both contact and barrier layers can now be deposited in and by the same deposition process. For Ti-B-C coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering, I demonstrate promising electrical properties in a materials system otherwise known for its good mechanical properties. In coatings of low B concentration, the B is incorporated into the TiC phase, probably by enrichment on the TiC{111} planes. The corresponding disturbance of the cubic symmetry results in a rhombohedral TiC:B structure. Finally, it is shown that AgI coatings consisting of weakly agglomerated AgI grains function as solid lubricant on Ag contacts. In an Ag sliding electrical contact, AgI decreases the friction coefficient from ~1.2 to ~0.4. After a few hundred operations, AgI grains have deagglomerated and Ag from the underlying layer is exposed on the surface and the contact resistance decreases to < 100 μΩ.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. 63 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1408
National Category
Natural Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72228 (URN)978-91-7393-030-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-02, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Available from: 2011-11-23 Created: 2011-11-23 Last updated: 2015-01-13Bibliographically approved

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