Staphylococci and Enterococci: Studies on activity of antimicrobial agents and detection of genes involved in biofilm formation
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, are the bacteria most often isolated from patients with hospital acquired infections. S. aureus is one of the most important pathogens and have a variety of virulence mechanisms which help it to infect the patient and cause tissue damage. CoNS and enterococci are low virulent bacteria and predominantly cause infections in individuals with underlying illness, individuals that have undergone surgery or with suppressed immune-system. The aims of this thesis were i) to investigate the susceptibility to different antimicrobial agents among S. aureus, CoNS, E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from primary care centres, general hospital wards and intensive care units in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and ii) to study the prevalence of the cytolysin genes and genes involved in biofilm formation among CoNS, E. faecium and E. faecalis. The results in this thesis show that the resistance rates among S. aureus and E. faecalis is still rather low in the north European countries. Among CoNS and E. faecium resistance rates are higher and comparable with rates in other European countries and US. CoNS had statistically significant differences in susceptibility rates between the ward levels with the lower susceptibility rates found at ICUs. Continued surveillance of resistance rates to antimicrobial agents among both staphylococci and enterococci are important internationally, nationally and locally. The results in this thesis also show that all multidrug resistant and 96% of the susceptible CoNS isolates carried at least one of the atlE and aap genes or the ica operon. Among E. faecalis isolates with HLGR, belonging to a cluster of genetically related isolates, both the esp and asa1 genes were carried in a high degree while the cyl operon was less frequently found. In addition, about 30% of unique E. faecalis isolates carried two or more of the virulence genes. Among E. faecium isolates the esp gene was common but asa1 and the cyl operon was not found in any of the isolates. Both CoNS and E. faecalis isolates from hospitalised patients are well equipped with genes involved in biofilm formation. These genes, when expressed and even more in combination with resistance to antimicrobial agents, might give these isolates an advantage compared to other isolates when it comes to adhesion to artificial surfaces, persistence in the hospital environment, colonisation of hospitalised patients and to cause nosocomial infections. Further studies are needed to be able to determine which isolates that causes hospital acquired infections and to evaluate the importance of the genes involved in biofilm formation as virulence factors and about how to prevent biofilm related infections from emerging
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2010. , 83 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1187
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-59523ISBN: 978-91-7393-353-7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-59523DiVA: diva2:352084
2010-09-24, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Ericson Sollid, Sollid, Professor
Nilsson, Lennart, ProfessorHällgren, Anita, Dr.Monstein, Hans-Jürg, ProfessorHanberger, Håkan, Dr.
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