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Long-term increase of fat mass after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limitation of physical activity
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1680-1000
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
2010 (English)In: Nutrition & Metabolism, ISSN 1743-7075, Vol. 7, no 68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: A sedentary lifestyle and increased consumption of energy dense food have become more common in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to study long term effects on body composition after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limited physical activity in young normal weight subjects.

Method: Eighteen subjects, mean age 26 (6.6) years, increased their energy intake with in average 70% and physical activity were not to exceed 5000 steps/day. Body composition was measured by Dual energy x-ray (DXA) at baseline, after the intervention and after 12 months. A matched control group was also included. ANOVA and Student's paired and unpaired t-test were used.

Result: During the intervention body weight increased with 6.4 (2.8) kg and DXA measurements showed increases of both fat free mass and fat mass. Six months after the intervention the subjects had lost most of the weight gain, - 4.7 (3.1) kg. Twelve months after the intervention body weight had increased with 1.5 (2.4) kg compared to baseline (p = 0.018). DXA measurements at 12 months showed unchanged fat free mass compared to baseline but higher fat mass, + 1.4 (1.9) kg (p = 0.01). After 2.5 years the increase of body weight was 3.1 (4.0) kg (p = 0.01) while there was no change in controls compared to baseline, + 0.1(2.5) kg (p = 0.88).

Conclusion: One year after a short term intervention with increased fast food based hyper-alimentation there was an increase of fat mass but unchanged fat free mass. As the change of fat mass was larger than expected from prospective epidemiological studies and as there was no increase of body weight in controls it raises the issue whether there is a long-term effect to increase fat mass of a short period of hyper-alimentation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 7, no 68
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60152DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-7-68ISI: 000282491900001PubMedID: 20738843OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-60152DiVA: diva2:355359
Note
Original Publication: Åsa Ernersson, Fredrik Nyström and Torbjörn Lindström, Long-term increase of fat mass after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limitation of physical activity, 2010, Nutrition & Metabolism, (7), 68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-7-68 Copyright: BioMed Central http://www.biomedcentral.com/ Available from: 2010-10-06 Created: 2010-10-06 Last updated: 2013-09-10
In thesis
1. Hyper-alimentation - effects on health and well-being.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hyper-alimentation - effects on health and well-being.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The general aim of this thesis was to prospectively examine the effects on health and well-being when healthy normal weight individuals increase their energy intake, mainly from fast food and simultaneously adopt a sedentary lifestyle.

This thesis is based upon a prospective experimental study design where 18 healthy normal weight individuals, 12 men and 6 women, aged 26 (6.6) years, increased their energy intake with in average 70 % during four weeks. Simultaneously their physical activity was limited to a maximum of 5000 steps per day. An age and gender matched control group (n=18), was recruited and asked not to change their eatingand physical activity habits for four weeks. Long-term follow-up measurements were performed after 6 and 12 months and 2.5 years after the intervention.

During the intervention body weight increased with 6.4 (2.8) kg and measurements of body composition showed an increase of both fat mass and fat free mass after the intervention. Lower physical and mental health scores on SF-36 as well as depressive symptoms were found compared to baseline. They were temporary and when followed up 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned to baseline values, despite a somewhat increased body weight. The main essence of adopting an obesity provoking behaviour was lack of energy emerging from five structures: influenced self-confidence, commitment to oneself and others, managing eating, feelings of tiredness and physical impact. Laboratory measurements showed an increase of ALT above reference limits in 14 of the 18 participants during the intervention and HTGC increased, although this was not related to the increase in ALT levels. Twelve months after the intervention an increase of body weight with 1.5 (2.4) kg was found compared to baseline (p=0.018), fat free mass was unchanged compared to baseline while fat mass had increased, + 1.4 (1.9) kg (p=0.01). Two and a half years after the intervention an increase of body weight with 3.1 (4.0) kg was found compared to baseline (p=0.01), while there was no change in controls compared to baseline, + 0.1 (2.5) kg (p=0.88).

Hyper-alimentation and limited physical activity during a short-term period of 4 weeks is sufficient to temporarily induce worsened HRQoL, cause depressive symptoms and lack of energy in healthy normal weight individuals. There were also temporary but clear effects on biochemical markers, suggesting that hyperalimentation per se can induce profound ALT elevations in less than 4 weeks. During the intervention both fat mass and fat-free mass increased while after 12 months there was only an increase of fat mass which was greater than expected from epidemiological studies. The marked difference between the increase in body weight in the intervention- and control group at 2.5 years also raises the question whether there is a long-term effect of increasing fat mass after a short period of hyperalimentation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 86 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1200
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60171 (URN)978-91-7393-331-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-10-01, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet,, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2010-10-11 Created: 2010-10-07 Last updated: 2010-10-11Bibliographically approved

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Ernersson, ÅsaNyström, FredrikLindström, Torbjörn

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