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Optical See-Through Head Mounted Display: Direct Linear Transformation Calibration Robustness in the Presence of User Alignment Noise
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Visual Information Technology and Applications)
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Visual Information Technology and Applications)
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Visual Information Technology and Applications)
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2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The correct spatial registration between virtual and real objects in optical see-through augmented reality implies accurate estimates of the user’s eyepoint relative to the location and orientation of the display surface. A common approach is to estimate the display parameters through a calibration procedure involving a subjective alignment exercise. Human postural sway and targeting precision contribute to imprecise alignments, which in turn adversely affect the display parameter estimation resulting in registration errors between virtual and real objects. The technique commonly used has its origin incomputer vision, and calibrates stationary cameras using hundreds of correspondence points collected instantaneously in one video frame where precision is limited only by pixel quantization and image blur. Subsequently the input noise level is several order of magnitudes greater when a human operator manually collects correspondence points one by one. This paper investigates the effect of human alignment noise on view parameter estimation in an optical see-through head mounted display to determine how well astandard camera calibration method performs at greater noise levels than documented in computer vision literature. Through Monte-Carlo simulations we show that it is particularly difficult to estimate the user’s eyepoint in depth, but that a greater distribution of correspondence points in depth help mitigate the effects of human alignment noise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010.
Keyword [en]
Head-mounted display, Calibration, Direct linear transform, Robustness
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60435ISBN: 9780945289371 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-60435DiVA: diva2:356619
Conference
54th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, San Francisco, USA, 27 September-1 October, 2010
Available from: 2010-10-13 Created: 2010-10-13 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Pinhole Camera Calibration in the Presence of Human Noise
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pinhole Camera Calibration in the Presence of Human Noise
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The research work presented in this thesis is concerned with the analysis of the human body as a calibration platform for estimation of a pinhole camera model used in Augmented Reality environments mediated through Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display. Since the quality of the calibration ultimately depends on a subject’s ability to construct visual alignments, the research effort is initially centered around user studies investigating human-induced noise, such as postural sway and head aiming precision. Knowledge about subject behavior is then applied to a sensitivity analysis in which simulations are used to determine the impact of user noise on camera parameter estimation.

Quantitative evaluation of the calibration procedure is challenging since the current state of the technology does not permit access to the user’s view and measurements in the image plane as seen by the user. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, researchers have previously placed a camera in the eye socket of a mannequin, and performed both calibration and evaluation using the auxiliary signal from the camera. However, such a method does not reflect the impact of human noise during the calibration stage, and the calibration is not transferable to a human as the eyepoint of the mannequin and the intended user may not coincide. The experiments performed in this thesis use human subjects for all stages of calibration and evaluation. Moreover, some of the measurable camera parameters are verified with an external reference, addressing not only calibration precision, but also accuracy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. 113 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1402
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72055 (URN)978-91-7393-053-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-04, Domteatern, Visualiseringscenter C, Kungsgatan 54, Norrköping, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-14 Created: 2011-11-14 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved

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Axholt, MagnusSkoglund, MartinPeterson, StephenCooper, MatthewSchön, ThomasGustafsson, FredrikYnnerman, Anders

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