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Driver Acceptance of False Alarms to Simulated Encroachment
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2010 (English)In: HUMAN FACTORS, ISSN 0018-7208, Vol. 52, no 3, 466-476 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: We investigated driver acceptance of alerts to left-turn encroachment incidents that do not produce a crash. If an event that produces a crash is the criterion for a "true" alert, all the alerts we studied are technically false alarms. Our aim was to inform the design of intersection-assist active safety systems. Background: The premise of this study is that it may be possible to overcome driver resistance to alerts that are false alarms by designing systems to issue alerts when and only when drivers would expect and accept them. Method: Participants were passengers in a driving simulator that presented left-turn encroachment incidents. Participant point of view, the direction of encroachment, and postencroachment time (PET) were manipulated to produce 36 near-crash incidents. After viewing each incident, the participant rated the relative acceptability of a hypothetical alert to it. Results: Repeated-measures ANOVA and logistic regression indicate that acceptability varies inversely with PET. At PET intervals less than 2.2 s, driver point of view and encroachment direction interact. At PET intervals more than 2.2 s, alerts to lateral encroachments are more acceptable than alerts to oncoming encroachments. Conclusion: Driver acceptance of alerts by active safety systems will be sensitive to context. Application: This study demonstrates the utility of eliciting subjective criteria to inform system design to match driver (user) expectations. Intersection-assist active safety systems will need to be designed to adapt to the interaction of driver point of view, the direction of encroachment, and PET.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage , 2010. Vol. 52, no 3, 466-476 p.
Keyword [en]
false alarms, active safety systems, alert acceptance, knowledge elicitation, simulation, left-turn encroachment incidents, driver behavior, automation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61200DOI: 10.1177/0018720810372218ISI: 000283322800008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-61200DiVA: diva2:360879
Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2011-05-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Using False Alarms when Developing Automotive Active Safety Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using False Alarms when Developing Automotive Active Safety Systems
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis develops and tests an empirical method to quantifying drivers’ level of acceptance for alerts issued by automotive active safety systems. The method uses drivers’ subjective level of acceptance for alerts that are literally false alarms as a measure to guide the development of alerting criteria that can be used by active safety systems. Design for driver acceptance aims at developing systems that overcome drivers’ dislike for false alarms by issuing alerts only when drivers finds them reasonable and therefore are likely to accept them. The method attempts to bridge the gap between field experiments with a high level of ecological validity and lab based experiments with a high level of experimental control. By presenting subjects with video recordings of field data (e.g., traffic incidents and other situations of interest), the method retains high levels of both experimental control and ecological validity.

This thesis first develops the theoretical arguments for the view that false alarms are not only unavoidable, but also that some false alarms are actually useful and, hence, desirable as they provide useful information that can be used (by the proposed method) to assess driver acceptance of active safety systems. The second part of this thesis consists of a  series of empirical studies that demonstrates the application of the assessment method. The three empirical studies showed that drivers’ subjective level of acceptance for alerts that are literally false alarms are a useful measure that can guide system designers in defining activation criteria for active safety systems. The method used to collect the driver’s subjective acceptance levels has also been shown to produce reliable and reproducible data that align with the view of the drivers who experienced the situations in the field. By eliciting responses from a large number of observers, we leverage the high cost of field data and generate sample sizes that are amenable to statistical tests of significance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. 58 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1374
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68109 (URN)978-91-7393-153-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-26, Visionen, hus B,, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-05-11 Created: 2011-05-11 Last updated: 2011-05-11Bibliographically approved

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Smith, KipKällhammer, Jan-Erik

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