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Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Communication Electronics)
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Communication Electronics)
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Communication Electronics)
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Communication Electronics)
2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, 13-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A wireless solution of remote climate control for cultural buildings is presented in this paper. The system allows users to use web service to control climate in different cultural buildings, like churches. The wireless sensor networks deployed in churches receive the control commands and manage the indoor climate. The whole system is modularly designed, which makes possible an easy service extension, system reconfiguration and modification. This paper includes the system overview and the software design of each part within the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 118, no 7, 13-27 p.
Keyword [en]
ZigBee, Wireless sensor network, Remote control, Modular system design
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61293OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-61293DiVA: diva2:369509
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2013-12-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Study of Wired and Wireless Data Transmissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of Wired and Wireless Data Transmissions
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The topic of this dissertation is divided into two parts where the first part presents high-speed data transmission on flexible cables and the second part presents a wireless remote monitoring and controlling system with wireless data transmission.

The demand on high-speed data communications has pushed both the wired and wireless technologies to operate at higher and higher frequencies. Classic Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws cannot be directly applied, when entering the microwave spectrum for frequency above 1 GHz. Instead, the transmission line theory should be used. Most of the wired communication products use bit-serial cables to connect devices. To transfer massive data at high speed, parallel data transfer techniques can be utilized and the speed can be increased by the number of parallel lines or cables, if the transfer rate per line or cable can be maintained. However, the lines or cables must be well-shielded so the crosstalk between them can be minimized.

Differential lines can also be used to increase the data speed further compared to the single-ended lines, along with saving the power consumption and reducing the electromagnetic interference. However, characterization for differential lines is not as straight forward as for single-ended cases using standard S-parameters. Instead, mixed-mode S-parameters are needed to describe the differential-, common- and mixed-mode characteristics of the differential signal. Mixed-mode S-parameters were first introduced in 1995 and are now widely used. However, improvements of the theory can still be found to increase the accuracy of simulations and measurements, which is proposed and presented in this dissertation.

The interest of wireless solution to do remote control and monitoring for cultural building has been increasing. Available solutions on the market are mostly wired and very expensive. The available wireless solutions often offer limited network size with point-to-point radio link. Furthermore, the wired solution requires operation on the building, which is not the preferred way since it will damage the historical values of cultural heritage buildings. Wireless solutions on the other hand can offer flexibility when deploying the network, i.e., operation on the building can be avoided or kept to the minimum.

A platform for wireless remote monitoring and control has been established for various deployments at different cultural buildings. The platform has a modular design to ease future improvement and expansion of the system. The platform is based on the ZigBee standard, which is an open standard, specified with wireless sensor network as focus. Three different modules have been developed. The performance has been studied and optimized. The network has been deployed at five different locations in Sweden for data collection and verification of the system stability.

The remote monitoring and control functions of the developed platform have received a nomination for the Swedish Embedded Award 2010 and been demonstrated at the Scandinavia Embedded Conference 2010 in Stockholm.Communication

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 61 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1352
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61298 (URN)978-91-7393-286-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-12-15, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 09:34 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-11-16 Created: 2010-11-11 Last updated: 2010-11-16Bibliographically approved
2. Design and Optimization of Wireless Remote Monitoring and Control System Using the ZigBee Protocol
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Optimization of Wireless Remote Monitoring and Control System Using the ZigBee Protocol
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents the design and the optimization of a wireless remote monitoring and control system utilizing the ZigBee protocol.

From the system architecture point of view, the remote wireless monitoring and control system is mainly combined by 3 parts, the wireless sensor network, the message gateway and the web service. In order to increase the system flexibility and the reconfigurability, each part communicates with each other by using the standard communication protocols.

The wireless sensor network of the system can be deployed in many different locations. The network includes the sensor module, the message relay, the control module and the network coordinator. The sensor module calculates the sensor information (e.g., temperature) periodically and sends the message to the network coordinator. If the radio link of the sensor module is not long enough to reach the coordinator, a message relay could be utilized in between to forward the message to the destination. Meanwhile, the message relay can be utilized as a control module as well. For example, when connected with the air conditioning system (radiator or ventilation), the control device can generate control signal to adjust the temperature and the relative humidity. The network coordinator is the root of the network. When the network coordinator receives the sensor information from the sensor module, it forwards the message to the connected gateway. On the other hand, the coordinator also receives the control command from the gateway. When the control command is received, the network coordinator forwards the control command to the corresponding control device of the wireless sensor network to execute the command. Generally speaking, it is the wireless sensor network part provides the sensor information and executes the control commands in the system.

The gateway works as a translator and synchronizer between the wireless sensor network and the web service. It communicates with the wireless sensor network via the connection of the network coordinator. When receiving the sensor information from the wireless sensor network, the gateway forwards the message to the web service through the Internet. On the other hand, the gateway also receives control commands from the web service. When the gateway receives the control command from the web service, it forwards the command to the network coordinator of the wireless sensor network. Moreover, the gateway also works as a local monitoring and control agent. The gateway can be utilized to monitor and control the local sensor network without login to the web service. During the network deployment, the gateway needs to be equipped for each wireless sensor network. Different gateways can communicate with the web service via the Internet at the same time.

The web service contains the sensor information uploaded from different locations. When the control command is received from the user configuration, the web service forwards the control command to the correct local server. From the user point of view, the web service is a website which can be accessed by a normal web browser. Users can register the website to apply for monitoring and control privilege. The monitoring function provides the graphical presentation of the sensor information from different locations. The control function of the system includes the ON/OFF control, temperature control and humidity control.

In order to increase the system reliability, extra optimizations are developed in different parts of the system. In the wireless sensor network, the power consumption of the battery powered sensor module is optimized. A method is discovered to manage the network topology and the message forwarding pattern. Moreover, an alternative routing algorithm is designed which could be utilized by the coordinator to communicated with the sensor network. This method is verified to be much more efficient than the original algorithm utilized by the sensor network. Finally, a general purpose communication reliability enhancement framework is developed for the wireless sensor network. It helps the wireless sensor network to handle the exceptions without interference to the sensor network applications. In the gateway part, the Internet connection status is checked all the time. When the Internet connection is broken, sensor messages sent from the coordinators are buffered in the gateway to avoid the message lost.

Finally, the remote monitoring and control system has received a nomination for the Swedish Embedded Award 2010 and been demonstrated at the Scandinavia Embedded Conference 2010 in Stockholm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. 54 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1508
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71526 (URN)978-91-7393-045-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-11-21, Täppan, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings Universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-10-20 Created: 2011-10-20 Last updated: 2013-12-16Bibliographically approved
3. A Remote Monitoring and Control System for Cultural Heritage Buildings Utilizing Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Remote Monitoring and Control System for Cultural Heritage Buildings Utilizing Wireless Sensor Networks
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation presents the study of a wireless remote monitoring and control system utilized for cultural heritage preservation purpose. The system uses wireless sensor networks to remotely monitor and control the indoor climate, i.e., temperature and relative humidity of the cultural buildings.

The system mainly consists of three parts, i.e., the wireless sensor network part, the gateway part and the web service part. Wireless sensor networks are deployed in different cultural buildings. The ZigBee protocol is utilized for the wireless sensor network communication. Sensor nodes report the indoor climate periodically. By connecting with radiators and/or dehumidifiers, the wireless control nodes can control the indoor climate according to the remote configuration. A gateway maintains the communication between a wireless sensor network and the web service. In monitoring function, the gateway forwards sensor messages from the wireless sensor network to the web service. In control function, the gateway synchronizes the climate settings from the web service to the wireless sensor network. The gateway also sends control commands to the wireless control nodes in the wireless sensor network. The web service provides a web-based user interface for the system.

Different from ordinary cable-connected sensor networks, a wireless sensor network that works for cultural heritage preservation should be a system with a large number of sensor nodes covering a large area in a building, high reliability in message transmission, low power consumption and low cost. In this study, the performance of the ZigBee wireless network is improved to meet such requirements base on the investigation of the ZigBee protocol limitation. Firstly, a method for enhancing the wireless sensor network communication reliability is developed. The reactive routing protocol defined by the ZigBee standard is improved so that the wireless nodes automatically detect and repair network communication problems. This method minimizes the message lost within the wireless sensor network by always reserving a route from the source node to the destination node. Secondly, a generic low power working method is developed for sensor devices. This method defines the general sensor module behavior which includes sensor data collecting, sensor message forwardingand wireless network rejoining upon communication failure. It allows sensor devices to maintain high message reliability with low power consumption. Especially, these methods are developed as a complementary infrastructure of the ZigBee wireless sensor network in order to increase the transmission reliability with low power consumption. Finally, methods and algorithms are developed to make it possible to power the ZigBee message relays (i.e., routers) with small batteries. In this system, the whole ZigBee network is synchronized. Wireless communications within the ZigBee network are scheduled so that every wireless transmission is collision-free. During the period when no communication is scheduled, the router can go into low power mode. This design improvement removes the original requirement of using mains power for ZigBee message relays. A truly battery-driven and low power consumption wireless sensor network is developed for monitoring cultural heritage buildings without (or with limited) mains power.

The remote control function is developed to mainly prevent biological degradation by controlling indoor climate, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. After studying the requirements for heritage preservation, a high flexibility, high reliability and low cost wireless indoor climate control system is developed. Different control algorithms are implemented to achieve different control results.

Till today, the remote monitoring and control system presented in this dissertation has been installed in 31 cultural heritage buildings both in Sweden and Norway.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 70 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1557
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102593 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-102593 (DOI)978-91-7519-448-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-01-29, TP1, Täppan, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2013-12-17Bibliographically approved

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Zhang, JingchengHuynh, AllanYe, Qin-ZhongGong, Shaofang

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Output format
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