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Study of Wired and Wireless Data Transmissions
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Communication Electronics)
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The topic of this dissertation is divided into two parts where the first part presents high-speed data transmission on flexible cables and the second part presents a wireless remote monitoring and controlling system with wireless data transmission.

The demand on high-speed data communications has pushed both the wired and wireless technologies to operate at higher and higher frequencies. Classic Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws cannot be directly applied, when entering the microwave spectrum for frequency above 1 GHz. Instead, the transmission line theory should be used. Most of the wired communication products use bit-serial cables to connect devices. To transfer massive data at high speed, parallel data transfer techniques can be utilized and the speed can be increased by the number of parallel lines or cables, if the transfer rate per line or cable can be maintained. However, the lines or cables must be well-shielded so the crosstalk between them can be minimized.

Differential lines can also be used to increase the data speed further compared to the single-ended lines, along with saving the power consumption and reducing the electromagnetic interference. However, characterization for differential lines is not as straight forward as for single-ended cases using standard S-parameters. Instead, mixed-mode S-parameters are needed to describe the differential-, common- and mixed-mode characteristics of the differential signal. Mixed-mode S-parameters were first introduced in 1995 and are now widely used. However, improvements of the theory can still be found to increase the accuracy of simulations and measurements, which is proposed and presented in this dissertation.

The interest of wireless solution to do remote control and monitoring for cultural building has been increasing. Available solutions on the market are mostly wired and very expensive. The available wireless solutions often offer limited network size with point-to-point radio link. Furthermore, the wired solution requires operation on the building, which is not the preferred way since it will damage the historical values of cultural heritage buildings. Wireless solutions on the other hand can offer flexibility when deploying the network, i.e., operation on the building can be avoided or kept to the minimum.

A platform for wireless remote monitoring and control has been established for various deployments at different cultural buildings. The platform has a modular design to ease future improvement and expansion of the system. The platform is based on the ZigBee standard, which is an open standard, specified with wireless sensor network as focus. Three different modules have been developed. The performance has been studied and optimized. The network has been deployed at five different locations in Sweden for data collection and verification of the system stability.

The remote monitoring and control functions of the developed platform have received a nomination for the Swedish Embedded Award 2010 and been demonstrated at the Scandinavia Embedded Conference 2010 in Stockholm.Communication

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2010. , 61 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1352
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61298ISBN: 978-91-7393-286-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-61298DiVA: diva2:369556
Public defence
2010-12-15, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 09:34 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-11-16 Created: 2010-11-11 Last updated: 2010-11-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Study of high-speed data transfer utilizing flexible and parallel transmission lines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of high-speed data transfer utilizing flexible and parallel transmission lines
2005 (English)In: Procedings of International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Nordic,, Pelkosen Painotuote in Kiiminki, Finland , 2005, 230-234 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Today many systems use serial data transfer techniques like serial AT attachment (SATA), Firewire and universal serial bus (USB). However, with parallel techniques the data transfer can be raised to a much higher speed. Having wires in parallel, one must also deal with phenomena such as crosstalk. To overcome crosstalk between parallel lines one must follow some design rules to avoid interference, like optimizing spaces between transmission lines. In this work simulations on high-speed single-ended and parallel channels utilizing microstrips and striplines have been done to show parameters that limit the channel bandwidth and thus the data rate. Design and simulations have been done using the Computer Aided Design (CAD) tool, Advanced Design System (ADS) provided by Agilent Technologies Inc. It is shown that both conductor surface roughness and dielectric loss will introduce extra AC noise to the signal. When having parallel conductors the AC noise increases with decreased rise/fall time, introduced by skin effect, conductor surface roughness and dielectric loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pelkosen Painotuote in Kiiminki, Finland, 2005
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32317 (URN)18209 (Local ID)18209 (Archive number)18209 (OAI)
Conference
Procedings of International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Nordic, September, Törnsberg, Norway
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-12-19
2. High-speed parallel data transmission utilizing a flex-rigid concept
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-speed parallel data transmission utilizing a flex-rigid concept
2005 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Transmission lines utilizing microstrips on a flex-foil with low dielectric loss (tanδ = 0.002) have been simulated to compare with the transmission lines laminated with a rigid part, a so-called flex-rigid structure. At high speeds, even solders, pads and connectors affect the signal integrity because of their parasitic effects. The flex-rigid structure does not require these extra parts, resulting in good signal integrity and thus high data transfer rates. Another advantage with a flexible cable is that dense parallel microstrips can easily be designed. Although many wired data communications utilize serial techniques like Serial AT Attachment (SATA), Universal Serial Bus (USB) and Firewire, the serial data link has its limitations when very high data speeds are required. With a parallel data transmission technique, the data transfer rate can be raised to a very high speed. However, a parallel data transmission technique has some disadvantages such as crosstalk and skew between the signals which must be considered.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32318 (URN)18210 (Local ID)18210 (Archive number)18210 (OAI)
Conference
Gigahertz 2005, 8-9 September, Uppsala, Sweden
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-12-19
3. High-Speed Board-to-Board Interconnects utilizing Flexible Foils and Elastomeric Connectors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Speed Board-to-Board Interconnects utilizing Flexible Foils and Elastomeric Connectors
2006 (English)In: HDP'06. Conference on High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, IEEE , 2006, 157-160 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a board-to-board interconnect technique utilizing elastomeric connectors and parallel microstrip lines on a flexible foil cable with low dielectric loss (tandelta = 0.002). It is shown that a pad structure combined with an elastomeric connector can be co-designed such that a good signal integrity and thus a high data transmission rate is achieved. It is also shown that 2 Gbps data transmission rate can be achieved with a 490-mm-long microstrip on the flexible cable, where crosstalk is taken into account. Utilizing the elastomeric connector together with the flat and flexible cable, dense parallel microstrips can easily be designed and processed since standard printed circuit board processing techniques can be utilized

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2006
Keyword
High-Speed Interconnects, Flexible cable, Elastomeric Connector
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36189 (URN)10.1109/HDP.2006.1707585 (DOI)30446 (Local ID)1-4244-0488-6 (ISBN)30446 (Archive number)30446 (OAI)
Conference
The 8th IEEE CPMT International Conference on High Density Microsystem Design, Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, June 27 – 28, Shanhai, China
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-12-19
4. Single-ended to Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion for Networks with Coupled Differential Signaling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-ended to Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion for Networks with Coupled Differential Signaling
2007 (English)In: 36th European Microwave Conference, Munich: EUMC , 2007, 238-241 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is shown in this paper that the commonly used method for converting from standard single-ended to mixed- mode S-parameters for networks with differential signaling only works for odd- and even-mode impedance equal to 50Omega. A correct conversion matrix equation must include the odd- and even-mode impedances which are not equal to the unique characteristic impedance owing to signal coupling in the network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Munich: EUMC, 2007
Keyword
Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion, Coupled Differential Signaling
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-40870 (URN)10.1109/EUMC.2007.4405170 (DOI)54438 (Local ID)978-2-87487-001-9 (ISBN)54438 (Archive number)54438 (OAI)
Conference
36th European Microwave Conference, 10-15 September, Manchester, UK
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-12-19
5. Truly Differential RF and Microwave Front-End Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Truly Differential RF and Microwave Front-End Design
Show others...
2010 (English)In: IEEE 11th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2010, 1-5 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

New design methodology for truly differential RF and microwave front-ends has been presented in this paper. Baluns are avoided using this design methodology, while achieving differential signaling for high noise immunity. A case study on an ultra-wide band RF front-end in the frequency band 6-9 GHz has been performed using the new design methodology, indicating that both wide bandwidth and high performance can be achieved using this design methodology. A direct comparison between single-ended and differential designs of the RF filter has also been presented in order to verify the correctness of the design methodology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE, 2010
Keyword
Design methodology, Differential, Microwave, RF front-end
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61292 (URN)10.1109/WAMICON.2010.5461888 (DOI)978-1-4244-6688-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 11th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), 12-13 April 2010, Melbourne, Australia
Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2015-03-18Bibliographically approved
6. Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage
2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, 1-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Existing systems to collect temperature and relative humidity data at cultural heritage buildings require technical knowledge by people who are working with it, which is very seldom that they do have. The systems available today also require manual downloading of the collected data from the sensor to a computer for central storage and for further analysis. In this paper a wireless remote sensor network based on the ZigBee technology together with a simplified data collection system is presented. The system does not require any knowledge by the building administrator after the network is deployed. The wireless sensor device will automatically join available network when the user wants to expand the network. The collected data will be automatically and periodically synchronized to a remote main server via an Internet connection. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purpose. The power consumption of the sensor module is also minimized and the battery lifetime is estimated up to 10 years.

Keyword
ZigBee, Remote monitoring, Low cost, Low power, Long battery lifetime
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61216 (URN)
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2010-11-16
7. Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 2306-8515, E-ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, 13-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A wireless solution of remote climate control for cultural buildings is presented in this paper. The system allows users to use web service to control climate in different cultural buildings, like churches. The wireless sensor networks deployed in churches receive the control commands and manage the indoor climate. The whole system is modularly designed, which makes possible an easy service extension, system reconfiguration and modification. This paper includes the system overview and the software design of each part within the system.

Keyword
ZigBee, Wireless sensor network, Remote control, Modular system design
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61293 (URN)
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
8. ZigBee Radio with External Low-Noise Amplifier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ZigBee Radio with External Low-Noise Amplifier
2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 114, no 3, 184-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents the performance study of a ZigBee module with an external low-noiseamplifier, measured in both outdoor and indoor environments. Our previous study has already shownthat the indoor campus environment such as walls and floors would reduce the radio link rangedrastically and the packet error rate increased. In this study, an external low-noise amplifier has beenadded to a ZigBee module to increase the receiver sensitivity. It is shown that with an external lownoiseamplifier the outdoor radio range can reach up to 403 m with a negligible packet error ratecompared to 144 m without the low-noise amplifier for point-to-point connection. Thus, by increasingthe receiver sensitivity the radio range can be increased without increasing of the radio power outputso that the power consumption can still be kept low to obtain long battery lifetime.

Keyword
ZigBee, Low-noise Amplifier, Increase Radio Link Range, Low Power, Long Battery Lifetime
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61214 (URN)
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2010-12-07
9. ZigBee Radio with External Power Amplifier and Low-Noise Amplifier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ZigBee Radio with External Power Amplifier and Low-Noise Amplifier
2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, 110-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the performance study of a ZigBee module with both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier, measured in outdoor and indoor environments, respectively. Our previous study has already shown that the indoor campus environment such as walls and floors would reduce the radio link range drastically and the packet error rate increased. In this study, both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier have been added to a ZigBee module to increase both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity. It is shown that with an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier the outdoor radio range can reach up to 1600 m with a negligible packet error rate compared to 144 m without any external amplifier for point-to-point radio connection. Thus, by increasing both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity the radio range can be increased significantly. The power consumption issue with the added amplifiers is studied as well, indicating that the module can still be battery driven with a battery lifetime of about 9 years at a normal sampling rate to the sensor.

Keyword
ZigBee, Power amplifier, Low-noise amplifier, Radio range
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61215 (URN)
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2010-11-16
10. Reliability and Latency Enhancements in a ZigBee Remote Sensing System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability and Latency Enhancements in a ZigBee Remote Sensing System
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Methods to improve the reliability and optimize the system latency of our own-developed ZigBee remote sensing system are introduced in this paper. The concept of this system utilizes the ZigBee network to transmit sensor information and process them at both local and remote databases. The enhancement has been done in different parts in this system. In the ZigBee network part, the network topology is configured and controlled. The latency for message transmitting is also optimized. In the data processing part, the network status check function and data buffer function are introduced to improve the system reliability. Additionally, the system latency is measured to compare with the Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector algorithm used in the ZigBee standard.

Keyword
System reliability, system latency, ZigBee network topology configuration, data buffering
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61294 (URN)10.1109/SENSORCOMM.2010.38 (DOI)978-1-4244-7538-4 (ISBN)
Conference
The Fourth International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (SENSORCOMM 2010), July 18 - 25, Venice/Mestre, Italy
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2014-09-25Bibliographically approved

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Study of Wired and Wireless Data Transmissions(853 kB)28081 downloads
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