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Echocardiography and myocardial Doppler indices in the anesthetized calf: A closed and open chest study
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Cardiology UHL.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery in Östergötland.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery in Östergötland.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aim: the aim of this study was to provide baseline central hemodynamic and echocardiographic values in an anaesthetized calf model before and after sternotomy, and to include tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) modalities so that they may be applied to future anaesthetized calf models in cardiovascular research.

Method and results: twenty-one healthy anaesthetized calves were catheterized and invasively and echocardiographic monitored before and after sternotomy using a pulmonary artery catheter, left atrial and carotid artery catheters, and transthoracic or pericardial echocardiography. The following data were registered: heart rate, mean arterial pulmonary and systemic pressures, central venous pressure and saturation, cardiac output, left and right ventricular dimensions and their myocardial regional basal peak velocity and strain rate during systole, early diastolic and atrial filling and systolic peak strain and systolic displacement.

After sternotomy, the heart rate, systemic arterial pressure and left ventricular size increased, but other cardiovascular parameters, including echocardiographic myocardial velocities, strain and displacement did not change.

Conclusion: transthoracic and pericardial echocardiography including TDI, is feasible and applicable to the anaesthetized calf model. The normal ranges for baseline hemodynamic and echocardiographic variables derived from this study demonstrate that, as in humans, sternotomy influences basic hemodynamic variables such as heart rate, blood pressure and heart volumes but does not significantly affect TDI. The data collected may be useful in the future development of cardiovascular research using the anaesthetized calf model.

Keyword [en]
Echocardiography; Animals; Echocardiography, Doppler; Heart; Haemodynamics
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61457OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-61457DiVA: diva2:370366
Available from: 2010-11-16 Created: 2010-11-16 Last updated: 2010-11-16
In thesis
1. Between the Probe and the Pump: An experimental study on cardiac performance analysis based on Echocardiography, tissue and laser Doppler
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Between the Probe and the Pump: An experimental study on cardiac performance analysis based on Echocardiography, tissue and laser Doppler
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Echocardiography is an ultrasound-based bedside, non-invasive and easily available cardiac diagnostic technique visualising the heart’s morphology and function. Quantification of cardiac wall motion can be measured with the tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) modality which provides in humans a high diagnostic capacity to differentiate healthy from diseased myocardium with reduced function. Heart failure, as a consequence of, for example, myocardial or ischaemic heart disease, demands both bedside and intraoperative diagnostic procedures for myocardial functional and perfusion assessment. In the late stages of heart failure cardiac left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) may be the treatment of choice. Such new technologies are commonly evaluated in large animals before application in humans is accepted.

With the aim of evaluating TDI´s applicability and feasibility in a large animal model 21 calves (aged 3 months and weight around 70 kg), were studied with colour TDI (Paper I). Analysis was performed either during coronary artery occlusion when the laser Doppler perfusion imaging technique (LDMP) was refined (Paper II), or after implantation of the LVAD, Heart Mate II® (Papers III, IV). All animals were haemodynamically monitored (pressures, flows, heart rate) and ECG was continuously recorded. Transthoracic and epicardial echocardiography (TTE) were performed before and after sternotomy and intraoperatively during experimental progressive heart failure. Heart chamber dimensions, native stroke volume, systolic and diastolic regional basal myocardial peak velocities (cm/s; systolic S´, early diastolic E´, and atrial A´, strain (%), strain rate (s-1) and displacement (mm) were determined. Second harmonic imaging (SHI) was applied in order to better visualise air bubbles (Paper IV).

In Paper I compiled baseline values were established before and after sternotomy for central haemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters, including the TDI myocardial motion variables velocity, strain rate, strain and displacement. Blood pressure and heart rate changed significantly after sternotomy, but the TDI derived data did not change significantly.

In Paper II we report that movement artifacts of the laser Doppler myocardial perfusion measurements can be reduced, both when myocardium is normally perfused and during coronary occlusion, by using the TDI velocity registrations showing wall motion to be minimal. The optimum interval depends on the application but late systole as well as late diastole is preferred.

After LVAD implantation in Paper III the flow characteristics and myocardial motion during variations in afterload TDI show that myocardial velocities decrease concomitantly with myocardial depression and are significantly correlated to native stroke volume, heart rate, systemic arterial resistance and cardiac output, but not with left ventricular size, fractional shortening or pump speed. Echocardiography together with TDI thereby offers additional means for monitoring and quantifying residual myocardial function during LVAD treatment.

SHI is superior in the early detection of single air-bubbles in the ascending aorta prior to significant air embolism during manipulation of the LVAD pump speed, as shown in Paper IV. A prompt decrease in size of the left atrium during speed adjustment may be a warning that massive air embolism is imminent whereas the commonly used left atrial pressure not provide the same warning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 55 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 2101
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61518 (URN)978-91-7393-327-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-11-26, Aulan, Hälsans Hus, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
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Note
The title of article II is in the list of publications "Correlation between laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and myocardial tissue Doppler echocardiography in the beating heart" and in the published article the title is "Myocardial tissue motion influence on laser Doppler perfusion monitoring using tissue Doppler imaging".Available from: 2010-11-16 Created: 2010-11-16 Last updated: 2012-05-09Bibliographically approved

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Hübbert, LailaPeterzén, BengtAhn, HenrikJanerot-Sjöberg, Birgitta

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Cardiology Faculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Cardiology UHLDepartment of Medicine and Health SciencesDepartment of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery in ÖstergötlandThoracic SurgeryBiomedical InstrumentationThe Institute of Technology
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