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Industrial Symbiosis for the development of Biofuel Production
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Industriell Miljöteknik)
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years the popularity of biofuels has been transformed from a sustainable option fortransportation to a questionable and criticized method. Many reports have therefore beenproduced to view biofuel production from a life cycle perspective; though results may bemisleading. In a number of the reports, biofuel production is viewed in a linear manner, i.e.crops and energy in and biofuel out. However there is a large quantity of material and energyflows associated with biofuel production and these must be accounted for.Industrial symbiosis concepts have therefore been applied in this thesis to the biofuel industryto identify possibilities to improve the material and energy flows. This has been done bymapping the exchanges and thereafter identifying possible synergies between biofuel firmsand with external industries. Examples from regional biofuel synergies and exchanges withindustrial partners have been highlighted. Many of the concepts have led to the identificationof methods for increased integration and improvements, including the use of a renewableenergy provider and the cooperation with external industries. Biofuels have therefore beenfound to profit from wastes, and instead of competition, benefit from one another, contrary tobelief. This leads to an expanded market of raw materials for biofuel production.Benefits do not only occur for the biofuel industry; from the application of biofuels, industrialsymbiosis may gain further benefits. Several new concepts have been produced in this thesisto account for the unique material handling possibilities that biofuel production firmsencompass. These include using biofuels as upcyclers of materials and the use of renewableenergy as a way to improve environmental performance. Furthermore, a classification methodhas been produced to add more detail about individual exchanges for the industrial symbiosisliterature in addition to viewing industrial symbiosis from an expanded system view toinclude exchanges beyond geographic proximity typical to the field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2010. , 53 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1441
Keyword [en]
biofuel, industrial symbiosis, biogas, ethanol, biodiesel
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-62675Local ID: LiU-TEK-LIC-2010:12ISBN: 978-91-7393-373-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-62675DiVA: diva2:373950
Presentation
2010-06-09, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköping University, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2010-12-02 Last updated: 2011-01-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Improving the Environmental Performance of Biofuels with Industrial Symbiosis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the Environmental Performance of Biofuels with Industrial Symbiosis
2009 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the production of biofuels for transport many critics have argued about the poor energy efficiency and environmental performance of the production industries. Optimism is thus set on the production of second generation biofuels, while first generation biofuels continue to dominate worldwide. Therefore it is interesting to consider how the environmental performance of first generation biofuel industries can be bettered. The field of industrial symbiosis offers many possibilities for potential improvements in the biofuel industry. It is shown in this research that integration between the respective biofuel industries is possible. This comes in the form of by-product synergies and utility synergies which can improve material and energy handling and environmental performance of the processes. Furthermore, the processes and products can gain increased environmental performance improvements by the adaption of a renewable energy system which will act as a utility provider for many industries in a symbiotic network. By-products may thereafter be upcycled through biogas production processes to generate both energy and a bio-fertilizer. A case study of an actual biofuel industrial symbiosis is also reviewed to provide support for these theories.

Keyword
industrial symbiosis, biofuels, biodiesel, ethanol, biogas, synergies
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63759 (URN)
Conference
Greening of Industry:: Joint Actions on Climate Change 8-10 June, Aalborg, Denmark
Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2011-04-04
2. An Inventory and Analysis of Synergies in the Biofuel Industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Inventory and Analysis of Synergies in the Biofuel Industry
2009 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As biofuels are becoming a part of national renewable energy goals, a great deal optimism is placed on second generation biofuels to overcome the criticism of first generation biofuels. However, optimization of first generation biofuels through process integration and the exchange of by-products and energy can give many environmental and economic benefits. Synergies have therefore been identified which can incorporate biofuel industries and offer integration with external industries. An inventory of synergies between biofuel and external industries has been provided by the synthesis of two methods, a synergies development workshop and literature review. The compilation includes 148 synergies, with each synergy categorized based on its interaction with biofuel and external industries and additionally the specific industry each synergy is destined. A large number of synergies consist of integrated biofuel synergies, though many synergies exist with external industries including  the food industry, energy and fuel industry, municipalities, algae production and agricultural industry. Synergies developed for this article are primarily by-product related synergies for handling major by-products and wastes from the biofuel and external industries for subsequent processing and further biofuel production.

Keyword
biofuel, industrial symbiosis, synergy, by-product, biogas, integration
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63760 (URN)
Conference
Greening of Industry:: Joint Actions on Climate Change 8-10 June, Aalborg, Denmark
Available from: 2012-05-14 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2012-05-14Bibliographically approved
3. Classification of Industrial Symbiosis Synergies: Application in the Biofuels Industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of Industrial Symbiosis Synergies: Application in the Biofuels Industry
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Much of the current literature available in the field of industrial symbiosis aims at providing a review of the symbiotic intensity, institutional and environmental contexts and assessments of the activities involved in a synoptic manner. However, literature regarding classification methods for individual material and energy exchanges is limited. In order to obtain better resolution of the characteristics of exchanges and interactions, i.e. synergies, a classification method is produced and tested in this paper. The classification method maps the interactions between different industries as well as the flows of products and utilities through origindestination classifications. Synergies between a core industry and external industries are examined in this paper, with the core industry represented by the biofuels industry, and without geographical boundaries. The classification method can be employed in other research projects and it is hoped that it will provide the background for further studies into conditions necessary for synergy implementation. Furthermore the classification method will provide subsequent details for research into economic and environmental benefits provided by synergies between industries.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63761 (URN)
Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2011-01-03

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Martin, Michael

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