On microvascular blood flow assessment with the new microdialysis urea clearance technique
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The aim of this thesis was to develop and evaluate a new way of monitoring blood flow with microdialysis. A thin catheter consisting of a semipermeable membrane is implanted in the tissue being studied. The catheter is perfused by a solution that closely resembles interstitial fluid, and small water-soluble substances are allowed to diffuse passively through the pores of the membrane with the aim at reaching equilibrium with the surrounding tissue. The minimally invasive character of microdialysis, and its ability to sample from the organ being studied, make microdialysis attractive in most research settings as well as for clinical surveillance. It has, however, become increasingly evident that microdialysis under conditions of non-equilibrium - for example, fluctuating regional blood flow, will alter the results gained. We have therefore aimed to explore the possibilities of developing a new marker of blood flow that will yield information about changes in blood flow that occur in the area of the microdialysis catheter itself.
We hypothesised that the changes in the diffusion of exogenous urea could be used as markers of changes in tissue blood flow. The theoretical basis for this approach is that the mass transfer of urea will increase across the dialysis membrane secondary to increased blood flow. As removal of urea from the vicinity of the dialysis membrane increases with increased blood flow, the concentration gradient of urea between the perfusate and tissue will also increase. This in turn will result in a greater loss of urea from the perfusate. The changes noted in retrieval of urea from dialysate by the system are therefore thought to be inversely related to changes in blood flow. We tested our hypothesis in two species of animal (rat and pig) and in man, and in three organ systems (muscle, liver, and skin), and present four papers that indicate that the urea clearance technique provides reliable and reproducible results. The technique was evaluated against conventional metabolic markers (lactate and glucose), the ethanol clearance technique (microdialysis), laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), and polarisation light spectroscopy (TiVi).
We present evidence that the urea clearance technique can be used to assess blood flow in the organs studied reliably and reproducibly with microdialysis. The microdialysis technique is minimally invasive and safe for the recipient, and catheters can easily be implanted during operation to monitor organs at risk. Urea is easily analysed as a standard assay among other “basic” metabolic markers (in a standard microdialysis kit) and has favourable characteristics with a standardised measurement system that is routinely used for monitoring metabolites in the clinic. The technique is also effective when used at lower perfusate flow rates (<1 μl/minute), which is advantageous as the recovery of metabolic markers increases at low perfusate flow rates.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2010. , 69 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1204
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63116ISBN: 978-91-7393-320-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-63116DiVA: diva2:376552
2010-12-03, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Collin, Ola, Docent
Sjöberg, Folke, Professor
List of papers