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Investigation of high power impulse magnetron sputtering pretreated interfaces for adhesion enhancement of hard coatings on steel
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Materials Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9140-6724
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2006 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 200, no 22-23, 6495-6499 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to improve the adhesion of hard coatings such as CrN, a surface pretreatment by the novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique followed by reactive unbalanced d.c. magnetron sputtering deposition was performed using a Cr target. The HIPIMS plasma comprising a high metal ion-to-neutral ratio consisting of single- and double-charged metal species identified by mass spectrometry increased the metal ion flux to the substrate. When applying a negative substrate bias Ub the adhesion was enhanced due to sputter cleaning of the surface and metal ion intermixing in the interface region. This intermixing, resulting in a gradual change of the composition, is considered to enhance the adhesion of the hard coatings on steel substrates. The pretreatment was carried out in an inert gas atmosphere at a pressure of pAr = 1 mTorr, the duration was varied between 25 and 75 min, whereas the negative substrate bias was varied between 400 V and 1200 V. The adhesion was found to depend on the substrate bias as well as on the target power and, for low substrate bias, on the duration of the pretreatment. For CrN the critical load of failure determined by scratch test could be increased in comparison to the values reported for specimens pretreated by conventional Ar etching. The influence of the target peak voltage, the substrate bias as well as pretreatment time on the constitution and morphology of the interface after the pretreatment is discussed applying analytical transmission electron microscopy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 200, no 22-23, 6495-6499 p.
Keyword [en]
Ionized PVD, Pulsed magnetron sputtering, Analytical TEM, Adhesion, Ion implantation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15030DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.11.082OAI: diva2:37674
Original publication: M. Lattemann, A.P. Ehiasarian, J. Bohlmark, P.Å.O. Persson and U. Helmersson, Investigation of high power impulse magnetron sputtering pretreated interfaces for adhesion enhancement of hard coatings on steel, 2006, Surface and Coatings Technology, (200), 22-23, 6495-6499. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., Available from: 2008-10-10 Created: 2008-10-10 Last updated: 2015-03-09
In thesis
1. Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In plasma assisted thin film growth, control over the energy and direction of the incoming species is desired. If the growth species are ionized this can be achieved by the use of a substrate bias or a magnetic field. Ions may be accelerated by an applied potential, whereas neutral particles may not. Thin films grown by ionized physical vapor deposition (I-PVD) have lately shown promising results regarding film structure and adhesion. High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a relatively newly developed technique, which relies on the creation of a dense plasma in front of the sputtering target to produce a large fraction of ions of the sputtered material. In HIPIMS, high power pulses with a length of ~100 μs are applied to a conventional planar magnetron. The highly energetic nature of the discharge, which involves power densities of several kW/cm2, creates a dense plasma in front of the target, which allows for a large fraction of the sputtered material to be ionized.

The work presented in this thesis involves plasma analysis using electrostatic probes, optical emission spectroscopy (OES), magnetic probes, energy resolved mass spectrometry, and other fundamental observation techniques. These techniques used together are powerful plasma analysis tools, and used together give a good overview of the plasma properties is achieved.

from the erosion zone of the magnetron. The peak plasma density during the active cycle of the discharge exceeds 1019 electrons/m3. The expanding plasma is reflected by the chamber wall back into the center part of the chamber, resulting in a second density peak several hundreds of μs after the pulse is turned off.

Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the plasma indicate that the degree of ionization of sputtered Ti is very high, over 90 % in the peak of the pulse. Even at relatively low applied target power (~200 W/cm2 peak power) the recorded spectrum is totally dominated by radiation from ions. The recorded HIPIMS spectra were compared to a spectrum taken from a DC magnetron discharge, showing a completely different appearance.

Magnetic field measurements performed with a coil type probe show significant deformation in the magnetic field of the magnetrons during the pulse. Spatially resolved measurements show evidence of a dense azimuthally E×B drifting current. Circulating currents mainly flow within 2 away cm from the target surface in an early part of the pulse, to later diffuse axially into the chamber and decrease in intensity. We record peak current densities of the E×B drift to be of the order of 105 A/m2.

A mass spectrometry (MS) study of the plasma reveals that the HIPIMS discharge contains a larger fraction of highly energetic ions as compared to the continuous DC discharge. Especially ions of the target material are more energetic. Time resolved studies show broad distributions of ion energies in the early stage of the discharge, which quickly narrows down after pulse switch-off. Ti ions with energies up to 100 eV are detected. The time average plasma contains mainly low energy Ar ions, but during the active phase of the discharge, the plasma is highly metallic. Shortly after pulse switch-on, the peak value of the Ti1+/Ar1+ ratio is over 2. The HIPIMS discharge also contains a significant amount of doubly charged ions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, 2006
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1014
Plasma, Pulsed plasma, High Power Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering, Plasma Characterization
National Category
Physical Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-7359 (URN)91-85523-96-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-04-13, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Available from: 2006-09-12 Created: 2006-09-12 Last updated: 2013-10-30

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Lattemann, MartinaBöhlmark, JohanPersson, Per .Å.O.Helmersson, Ulf
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