liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Nitrogen doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8116-9980
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5768-0244
Solid State Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden.
Show others and affiliations
2002 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 236, no 1-3, 101-112 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intentional doping with nitrogen of 4H- and 6H-SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The nitrogen doping dependence on the temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate and nitrogen flow has been investigated. The nitrogen incorporation for C-face material showed to be C/Si ratio independent, whereas the doping decreased with increasing C/Si ratio for the Si-face material in accordance with the “site-competition” model. The nitrogen incorporation was constant in a temperature “window” of 75°C on Si-face material indicating a mass transport limited incorporation. Increasing the growth rate resulted in a decrease of nitrogen incorporation on Si-face but an increase on C-face material. Finally, a comparison between previously published results on cold-wall CVD-grown material and the present hot-wall-grown material is presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ScienceDirect , 2002. Vol. 236, no 1-3, 101-112 p.
Keyword [en]
A1. Doping, A3. Hot wall epitaxy, B2. Superconducting materials
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15068DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0248(01)02198-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-15068DiVA: diva2:37758
Note
The status of this article on the day of the defence was: Submitted and the title of the article was "Nitrogen doping of Silicon Carbide: Effect of Process Parameters"Available from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. CVD Growth of Silicon Carbide for High Frequency Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CVD Growth of Silicon Carbide for High Frequency Applications
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an important wide band gap semiconductor with outstanding electronic properties. With figures of merit far better than silicon, SiC is believed to replace and outcompete silicon in many applications using high frequencies, high voltage and high temperatures. With the introduction of seeded sublimation technique, a realisation of substrates with large diameter and high quality became possible. Recent progress in the bulk growth using high temperature chemical vapour deposition (HTCVD) has shown excellent results with high purity substrates with semi insulating (SI) properties. The availability of high quality SI substrates allows the fabrication of microwave devices with low rf losses such as the Metal Schottky Field Effect Transistor (MESFET). With the introduction of the hot-wall CVD technique, thick low doped n-type epitaxial layers have been grown for high power devices (> 4 kV) such as the PiN diode.

The main contribution of the present work relates to the investigation of growth of MESFET structures. The goal has been to demonstrate the ability to grow MESFET structures using the hot-wall CVD technique. The challenge with abrupt interfaces and controlled doping has been investigated. A comprehensive investigation has been made on how nitrogen and aluminum dopant atoms incorporate into the SiC lattice using the hot-wall CVD technique. Fundamental research of MESFET structures has been combined with growth of device structures for both Swedish and European groups as well as industries. The research has been focused towards the understanding of dopant incorporation, characterization of doped epitaxial layers, the growth of device structures, the modelling of temperature distribution in a hot-wall susceptor and the development of growth systems for future up scaling.

In paper 1 we present how the nitrogen dopant is incorporated into the SiC lattice. The influence of several different growth parameters on the nitrogen incorporation is presented. Equilibrium thermodynamical calculations have been performed to give a further insight into the incorporation mechanism. The investigation shows that the N2 molecule itself does not contribute directly to the nitrogen incorporation, however, molecules like the HCN and HNC are more likely.

In paper 2 the incorporation of the aluminum dopant into the SiC lattice is investigated in a similar way as the nitrogen incorporation in paper 1. The results show that the aluminum incorporation in SiC is mainly controlled by the carbon coverage on the SiC surface. The investigation shows that it is difficult to obtain high aluminum doping on carbon face whereas the silicon face is sensitive to changes of the growth parameters. High growth rate resulted in a diffusion controlled incorporation.

In Paper 3 we present the results from the growth of MESFET structures as well as characterization of the structures and final device properties. Knowledge taken from paper 1 and 2 was used to improve the abruptness of the grown structures.

Paper 4 presents the results obtained by low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) on separately grown 4H-SiC epitaxial layers. Doping calibration curves for nitrogen in the doping range from 1⋅1014 to 2⋅1019 cm-3 are presented. A discussion concerning the Mott transition is also presented.

Paper 5 presents the results of the use of simulation to investigate the heating of a hot-wall CVD reactor. New susceptor and coil design are tested. The simulation has been verified with experimental heating tests which show excellent agreement. The new design has a temperature variation of less than 0.5 % over more than 70% of the total susceptor length in addition to a decreased power input of 15 %.

In the final two papers, paper 6 and 7, we present work of growth of AlN on SiC. Thin films were grown and characterized with different techniques concerning crystal quality and thickness. The use of infrared reflectance and the features of the AlN reststrahl reflectance band allowed us to determine the thickness of AlN films as thin as 250 Å.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2001. 35 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 708
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15070 (URN)91-7373-081-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2001-09-07, Planck, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-13 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
2. Simulations of Silicon Carbide Chemical Vapor Deposition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulations of Silicon Carbide Chemical Vapor Deposition
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Most of the modern electronics technology is based on the semiconducting material silicon. The increasing demands for smaller electronic devices with improved performance at lower costs drive the conventional silicon technology to its limits. To meet the requirements from the industry and to explore new application areas, other materials and fabrication methods must be used. For devices operating at high powers, high temperatures and high frequencies, the so-called wide bandgap semiconductors can be used with great success. Silicon carbide (SiC) and III-nitrides are wide bandgap materials that have gained increased interest in recent years. One important technique in manufacturing of electronic devices is chemical vapor deposition (CVD), by which thin layers can be deposited. These layers may have different electrical properties, depending on the choice of material and doping. Generally in CVD, a reactive gas mixture flows through a heated reactor chamber, where the substrates are placed. Complex chemical reactions take place in the gas and on the substrate surface, leading to many intermediate species and by-products, and eventually to the desired deposition. For the growth of device quality material it is important to be able to control the properties of the grown layers. These properties generally depend on the growth conditions in the reaction chamber, and on the chemistry of the deposition process. So far, empirical trial-and-error methods have been employed in the development of growth processes. Due to the lack of basic understanding of the governing physical processes, progress is costly and time consuming. Improving and optimizing the CVD process, as well as improving the fundamental understanding of the whole process is of great importance when good quality material should be produced. For this, computer simulations of the relevant physical and chemical phenomena can provide the necessary tools. This thesis focuses on computer simulations of the CVD process, in particular CVD of SiC. Simulations can be used not only as a tool for optimizing growth processes and reactor designs, they can also give information about physical phenomena that are difficult to measure, such as the gas-phase composition or the flow paths inside the reactor.

Heating of the CVD susceptor is a central part of the process. For the growth of high quality SiC a relatively high temperature must be used. A convenient method for heating to high temperatures is by induction. A low resistive material, such as graphite, is placed inside a coil, which is given an alternating current. The graphite is then heated by the induced currents due to ohmic resistance. In this thesis the temperature distribution inside a CVD reactor, and how it is influenced by changes in coil frequency, power input to the coil and graphite thickness, is investigated. It is shown that by changing the placement and shape of the coil and by using insulation material correctly, a more uniform temperature distribution can be obtained.

A model for the growth of SiC is used to predict growth rates at various process parameters. A number of possible factors influencing the growth rate are investigated using this model. The importance of including thermal diffusion and the effect of etching by hydrogen is shown, and the effect of parasitic growth investigated. Simulations show a mass transport limited growth, as seen from experiments.

An improved susceptor design with an up-lifted substrate holder plate is investigated and compared to a conventional hot-wall reactor and to a cold-wall reactor. It is shown that stress induced by thermal gradients through the substrate is significantly reduced in the hot-wall reactor, and that stress due to backside growth can be diminished using the new design. Positive side effects are that slightly higher growth rates can be achieved, and that the growth temperature can be slightly lowered in the new susceptor.

The doping incorporation behavior is thoroughly investigated experimentally for intentional doping with nitrogen and aluminum. The doping incorporation on both faces of SiC, as well as on two different polytypes is investigated. Equilibrium calculations are preformed, giving possible candidates for species responsible for the doping incorporation. To predict nitrogen doping concentrations, a simplified quantitative model is developed and applied to a large number of process parameters. It is seen that the same species as predicted by equilibrium calculations are produced, but the reactions producing these species are relatively slow, so that the highest concentrations are at the outlet of the reactor. It is thus concluded that N2 must be the major specie responsible for the nitrogen incorporation in SiC.

For the growth of III-nitrides, ammonia is often used to give the nitrogen needed. It is well known that ammonia forms a solid adduct with the metalorganic gas, which is used as the source for the group III elements. It would thus be beneficial to use some other gas instead of ammonia. Since purity is of great importance, N2 gas would be the preferred choice. However, N2 is a very stable molecule and difficult to crack, even at high temperatures. It is shown that hydrogen can help in cracking nitrogen, and that growth of III-nitrides can be performed using N2 as the nitrogen-bearing gas, by only small changes to a conventional hot-wall CVD reactor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2002. 49 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 773
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Materials Chemistry Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104594 (URN)91-7373-423-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2002-10-25, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-03-14 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textLink to Ph.D. Thesis

Authority records BETA

Forsberg, UrbanDanielsson, ÖrjanHenry, AnneJanzén, Erik

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Forsberg, UrbanDanielsson, ÖrjanHenry, AnneJanzén, Erik
By organisation
Semiconductor MaterialsThe Institute of TechnologyDepartment of Physics, Chemistry and Biology
In the same journal
Journal of Crystal Growth
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 251 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf