liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Breast milk cytokine and IgA composition differ in Estonian and Swedish mothers-relationship to microbial pressure and infant allergy
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Children's Clinic of Tartu University Clinics, Tartu University, Estonia.
Institute of Environmental Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Show others and affiliations
2010 (English)In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 68, no 4, 330-334 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The immune system of the neonate is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. An altered microbial exposure, possibly underlying the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies, may affect maternal breast milk immune composition. Secretory IgA (SIgA), IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2 were analyzed with ELISA in colostrum and 1-mo mature milk from mothers from Estonia (n = 39) and Sweden (n = 60), the two geographically adjacent countries with different living conditions and allergy incidence. The IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were higher in colostrum from Estonian than Swedish mothers, whereas the opposite was true for TGF-β2. In mature milk, higher SIgA and IFN-γ levels but lower TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 levels were observed in Estonian than Swedish mothers. Interestingly, in Sweden but not Estonia, the TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 levels correlated inversely with environmental endotoxin concentrations, whereas positive correlations to microbial load were observed for IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ. High colostral IL-13 levels were associated with allergic sensitization during infancy in Sweden. In conclusion, Estonian mothers have lower breast milk levels of TGF-β, particularly TGF-β2, but higher levels of SIgA, IL-10, and IFN-γ than Swedish mothers, possibly because of differences in microbial load.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 68, no 4, 330-334 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-64314DOI: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181ee049dPubMedID: 20581738OAI: diva2:389221
Available from: 2011-01-19 Created: 2011-01-19 Last updated: 2013-05-14

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(345 kB)146 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 345 kBChecksum SHA-512
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Tomicic, SaraJohansson, GitFagerås-Böttcher, MalinJenmalm, Maria
By organisation
PediatricsFaculty of Health SciencesCell Biology
In the same journal
Pediatric Research
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 146 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 96 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link