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A Standard Mobile Phone as a Chemical Sensor
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes work to investigate the potential of using an ordinary mobile phone to perform chemical sensing by colorimetric analysis of reflected light. The wide availability and familiarity of mobile phones make them excellent devices for aiding consumers in making on site tests in their everyday lives. A major part of the work has been the development of the necessary software to be able to use a standard mobile phone to study diffuse reflection with the screen as illumination source and the front view camera for collection of spectral information.

Java Micro Edition was used to control the hardware resources of the phone. The NetBeans 6.5 platform facilitated the design, development, testing and implementation of a dedicated Mobile Information Device  applet for performing the necessary tasks associated with controlling the screen light and recording the reflected light intensities. MATLAB was employed to extract spectral information from the recorded images.

Initially, tests with a virtual sample having areas with different colors were performed. Optimization of the alignment of the sample and the distance between the camera and the sample were carried out and the influence of ambient light was investigated. The lateral resolution of the images enables optical readout of sensor arrays as well as arrays for diagnostics.

The potential of using the technique for direct measurement of properties related to the quality of drinking water, food and beverages was also investigated. Liquid samples were prepared in deionized water. Colored compounds such as iron(III)chloride and humic acid in the concentration range 2-10 mg/l were classified from their reflected intensities. Colorless arsenic(III) was analyzed by its bleaching reaction with iodine/starch. An alternative arsenic detection method based on measurement of discoloration of iron containing sand was demonstrated.

We have also demonstrated that mobile phones can be used for qualitative analysis of food and drink, such as cold drinks, meat,  vegetables and milk in terms of general food quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2011. , 26 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1505
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-65733Local ID: LIU-TEK-LIC-2011: 44ISBN: 978-91-7393-051-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-65733DiVA: diva2:398579
Presentation
2011-10-14, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-02-18 Created: 2011-02-18 Last updated: 2015-03-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Spectral Fingerprinting on a Standard Mobile Phone
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spectral Fingerprinting on a Standard Mobile Phone
2010 (English)In: Journal of Sensors, ISSN 1687-725X, E-ISSN 1687-7268, Vol. 2010, 381796- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spectral fingerprinting of chemical indicators, using computer screens as light sources and web cameras as imaging detectors, is an emerging approach for chemical sensing with the potential to coexist in common consumer electronic devices.The migration of this technique to mobile phones is key to extend this sensing approach to the most ubiquitous and familiar type of instrumentation. Here, we investigate the feasibility and performance of spectral fingerprinting on reference samples using a standard mobile phone as a complete measuring platform, where the screen provides controlled illumination while the front camera is the imaging detector. Key elements for the execution of such experiments are the software design, the definition of the sample layout, the type of alignment between the phone and the sample, and the influence of ambient illumination. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of reflectance fingerprinting on standard mobile phones and identify the operating conditions of the key parameters that produce an adequate evaluation performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi, 2010
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-65730 (URN)10.1155/2010/381796 (DOI)
Note

Original Publication: Zafar Iqbal and Daniel Filippini, Spectral Fingerprinting on a Standard Mobile Phone, 2010, Journal of Sensors, (2010), 381796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/381796 Licensee: Hindawi Publishing http://www.hindawi.com/

Available from: 2011-02-18 Created: 2011-02-18 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. Colorimetric analysis of water and sand samples performed on a mobile phone
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Colorimetric analysis of water and sand samples performed on a mobile phone
2011 (English)In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 84, no 4, 1118-1123 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Analysis of water and sand samples was done by reflectance measurements using a mobile phone. The phone’s screen served as light source and front view camera as detector. Reflected intensities for white, red, green and blue colors were used to do principal component analysis for classification of several compounds and their concentrations in the water. Classification of iron (III), chromium (VI) and sodium salt of humic acid was obtained using reflected intensities from blue and green light for concentrations 2-10 mg/l. Analysis of As(III) from 25-400 μg/l based on reflection of red light was performed utilizing the bleaching reaction of tincture of iodine containing starch. Enhanced sensitivity to low concentrations of arsenic was obtained by adding reflected intensities from white light to the analysis. Model colored sand samples representing discoloration caused by the presence of arsenic in groundwater were also analyzed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keyword
mobile phone, home analysis, colorimetric assay, multivariate analysis, arsenic detection
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-65732 (URN)10.1016/j.talanta.2011.03.016 (DOI)000291078100016 ()
Available from: 2011-02-18 Created: 2011-02-18 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Assessment of a mobile phone for use as a spectroscopic analytical tool for foods and beverages
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of a mobile phone for use as a spectroscopic analytical tool for foods and beverages
2011 (English)In: International journal of food science & technology, ISSN 0950-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2621, Vol. 46, no 11, 2428-2436 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A mobile phone was used to perform optical analyses of foods and beverages. The phone’s screen served as illumination source and front view camera recorded images. Reflected intensities were used to discriminate among the different samples analysed by principal component analysis. Samples studied illustrated the technique’s potential analytical capabilities with respect to adulteration and authenticity. Three coloured additives (red, green and blue) in the concentration range 2-10 mg/l in a lemon lime beverage were discriminated. Adulteration by up to 25% water of milk with 3% fat content was detected with an estimated detection limit of about 3% water. Changes occurring on a green onion surface over a 48 h aging period at room temperature were monitored. Five different cuts from lamb carcasses weighing 9 and 14 kg were classified by the method. Considerable additional work with regard to sampling, data treatment and quantifying results is necessary before the goal of using the technique as a point of purchase analytical tool can be realised.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2011
Keyword
Mobile phone, point of purchase, adulteration, authenticity, colourants, milk, vegetable freshness, meat cuts, multivariate analysis
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70849 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02766.x (DOI)000296377300027 ()
Note
Funding agencies|Pakistans Higher Education Commission (HEC)||Available from: 2011-09-20 Created: 2011-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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Iqbal, Zafar

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