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Effects of cocoa extract and dark chocolate on angiotensin-converting enzyme and nitric oxide in human endothelial cells and healthy volunteers--a nutrigenomics perspective.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. (medicin)
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. (medicin)
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. (medicin)
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. (medicin)
2011 (English)In: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, ISSN 0160-2446, E-ISSN 1533-4023, Vol. 57, no 1, 44-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evidence suggests that cocoa from the bean of Theobroma cacao L. has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if cocoa extract and dark chocolate influence angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and nitric oxide (NO) in human endothelial cells (in vitro) and in healthy volunteers (in vivo). ACE activity was analyzed with a commercial radioenzymatic assay and measured in human endothelial cells from umbilical veins (HUVEC) after 10 minutes of incubation with cocoa extract. NO was measured after 24 hours of incubation. ACE activity and NO were measured at baseline and after 30, 60, and 180 minutes in 16 healthy volunteers after a single intake of 75 g of dark chocolate containing 72% cocoa. Significant inhibition of ACE activity (P < 0.01) and significant increase of NO (P < 0.001) were seen in HUVEC. In the study subjects, a significant inhibition of ACE activity (mean 18%) 3 hours after intake of dark chocolate was seen, but no significant change in NO was seen. According to ACE genotype, significant inhibition of ACE activity was seen after 3 hours in individuals with genotype insertion/insertion and deletion/deletion (mean 21% and 28%, respectively). Data suggest that intake of dark chocolate containing high amount of cocoa inhibits ACE activity in vitro and in vivo.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 57, no 1, 44-50 p.
Keyword [en]
cocoa, dark chocolate, angiotensin-converting enzyme, genotyping, nitric oxide
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66332DOI: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181fe62e3ISI: 000286178000007PubMedID: 20966764OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-66332DiVA: diva2:403210
Available from: 2011-03-11 Created: 2011-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved

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Persson, Ingrid A LPersson, KarinHägg, StaffanAndersson, Rolf G G

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