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The Notch-2 Gene Is Regulated by Wnt Signaling in Cultured Colorectal Cancer Cells
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
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2011 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 3, 0017957- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Notch and Wnt pathways are key regulators of intestinal homeostasis and alterations in these pathways may lead to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In CRC the Apc/beta-catenin genes in the Wnt signaling pathway are frequently mutated and active Notch signaling contributes to tumorigenesis by keeping the epithelial cells in a proliferative state. These pathways are simultaneously active in proliferative adenoma cells and a crosstalk between them has previously been suggested in normal development as well as in cancer. Principal Findings: In this study, in silico analysis of putative promoters involved in transcriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins in the Notch signaling pathway revealed several putative LEF-1/TCF sites as potential targets for beta-catenin and canonical Wnt signaling. Further results from competitive electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) studies suggest binding of several putative sites in Notch pathway gene promoters to in vitro translated beta-catenin/Lef-1. Wild type (wt)-Apc negatively regulates beta-catenin. By induction of wt-Apc or beta-catenin silencing in HT29 cells, we observed that several genes in the Notch pathway, including Notch-2, were downregulated. Finally, active Notch signaling was verified in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model where Hes-1 mRNA levels were found significantly upregulated in intestinal tumors compared to normal intestinal mucosa. Luciferase assays showed an increased activity for the core and proximal Notch-2 promoter upon co-transfection of HCT116 cells with high expression recombinant Tcf-4, Lef-1 or beta-catenin. Conclusions: In this paper, we identified Notch-2 as a novel target for beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling. Furthermore our data supports the notion that additional genes in the Notch pathway might be transcriptionally regulated by Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS) , 2011. Vol. 6, no 3, 0017957- p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67155DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017957ISI: 000288545100048OAI: diva2:407806
Original Publication: Jonas Ungerbäck, Nils Elander, John Grunberg, Mikael Sigvardsson and Peter Söderkvist, The Notch-2 Gene Is Regulated by Wnt Signaling in Cultured Colorectal Cancer Cells, 2011, PLOS ONE, (6), 3, 0017957. Licensee: Public Library of Science (PLoS) Available from: 2011-04-01 Created: 2011-04-01 Last updated: 2011-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Inflammation and Intestinal Homeostasis-Associated Genes in Colorectal Cancer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inflammation and Intestinal Homeostasis-Associated Genes in Colorectal Cancer
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a global ‘killer’ and every year more than 1.2 million new individuals are affected and approximately 600 000 succumb to the disorder. Several mechanisms such as inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, activation of oncogenes and dysregulation of cell fate determinating pathways e.g. Wnt and Notch can initiate a cancerous cell growth and promote colorectal tumorigenesis. In addition, most tumors are exposed to an inflammatory environment, which together with the presence of mitogenic and angiogenic signals may sustain several hallmarks of cancer. Genetic alterations in inflammatory genes are associated with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, which is a strong risk factor of developing CRC. Scientists have for a long time looked for ‘the Key’ that would unlock the ‘cancer door’ but more likely cancer should be considered as not one but many diseases where almost every single patient is genetically and clinically unique. Hence recent research has turned to identify such inter-individual discrepancies and to find disease markers and strategies for guiding clinicians when tailoring individual management and optimized therapy. A deeper understanding of the regulation and genetic variation of inflammation and intestinal-homeostasis associated genes is pivotal to find potential targets for future therapies.

The present thesis focuses on genetic variation and alterations in inflammatory genes as well as genes specifically involved in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. The most common anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs, inhibit the prostanoid-generating COX-enzymes and are associated with decreased CRC risk when administered for a long time. Unfortunately, continuous NSAID treatment may lead to severe side-effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding, possibly through the ablation of non-PGE2 prostanoids. Therefore, a more specific inhibition of PGE2 has been suggested to be superior to classical NSAIDs. In papers I and II, the terminal PGE2 generating enzyme mPGES1 was studied in the context of intestinal cancer. Unexpectedly, ApcMin/+ mice with a targeted deletion of the mPGES1 encoding gene displayed significantly more and larger intestinal adenomas as compared to their wilde-type (wt) littermates. Probably this was due to the redirected generation of PGE2 towards non-PGE2 prostanoids seen in the murine tumors, resulting in enhanced pro-tumorigenic activity of these transmitter substances. Next, with a battery of functional and descriptive assays we investigated whether the outcome of mPGES1 expression and activity could depend on the genetic profile of the tumor e.g. the Apc mutational status. Indeed, high expression of mPGES1 was associated with the presence of wt-Apc, both in vitro and in vivo, most likely depending on mPGES1 mRNA stabilization rather than upregulation through β–catenin/Lef/Tcf4 signaling.

NFκB is a major regulator of inflammation e.g. through the production of inflammatory cytokines. Variations in genes controlling inflammation and angiogenesis could potentially be used as biomarkers to identify patients with increased risk of CRC development, and/or to identify those with high risk of a rapidly progressing disease. Further, such analyzes have been suggested to select patients, which may benefit from specific anti-inflammatory or anti-angiogenic therapies. In paper III, genetic alterations in NFκB associated genes were studied among CRC patients and healthy controls. The NFκB negative regulator TNFAIP3 was found to exert tumor suppressive functions in CRC and moreover, homozygous mutant TNFAIP3 (rs6920220), homozygous mutant NFκB -94 ATTG ins/del and heterozygous NLRP3 (Q705K) were identified as prognostic markers for identifying CRC patients with a high risk of rapid progression. Further studies, which focus on the potential to treat such patients with anti-inflammatory IL-1β targeting therapies, are warranted.

In the intestinal epithelium, Notch and Wnt signaling function in synergy to maintain homeostasis and together these pathways promote stem cell renewal and drive proliferation. Thus, dysregulation and/or overactivation of one of the two pathways could potentially lead to simultaneous activation of the other. While the genetic mechanisms explaining aberrant Wnt signaling in CRC are well-known, the reasons for the Notch pathway activation are less so. Further, relatively little is known about the mechanisms linking the two pathways in CRC. In paper IV, we addressed this question with a set of experimental in vitro assays, hereby identifying Notch2 together with several additional genes classically belonging to the Notch pathway, as putative targets for canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. We therefore suggest that aberrant Notch signaling in colon cancer cells may be the result of dysregulated Wnt signaling.

In summary, the results here presented add a couple of pieces to the immensely complex jigsaw puzzle connecting intestinal homeostasis, inflammation and CRC. These results may aid in identifying future biomarkers or potential drug targets that could take us to the next level in the war against cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 77 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1271
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72993 (URN)978-91-7393-032-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-01-26, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 12:00 (English)
Available from: 2011-12-14 Created: 2011-12-14 Last updated: 2011-12-19Bibliographically approved

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