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The importance of ‘approaching’ older people: a grounded theory
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1588-135X
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 7, no 1, 29-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims and objectives. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical values in caring encounters as experienced by older patients in their daily interaction with nurses in wards for older people.

Background. Ethical values and morals are important aspects that influence the quality of care.

Methods. Empirical observational study including follow-up interviews. Twenty-two older patients participated voluntarily in this study. Constant comparative analysis, the core foundation of grounded theory was used.

Results. Five categories: being addressed, receiving respect, desiring to participate, increasing self-determination and gaining self-confidence formed the bases for the core category.

Approaching. Approaching concerns how people become closer to each other in a physical space. It also includes how people become closer to each other in a dialogue, involving verbal or bodily communication.

Conclusions and relevance to clinical practice. Approaching indicates the ethical values that guide nurses in their caring encounters with older patients. These values are noted by the patient and have an individual value as well as leading to improved quality of their care. The older patient will be confident and satisfied with the caring encounter if the desired components in the nurse's approaching are exhibited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley , 2012. Vol. 7, no 1, 29-36 p.
Keyword [en]
Ethics, nursing care, older people, qualitative methods
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67874DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-3743.2010.00248.xOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-67874DiVA: diva2:413981
Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A comprehensive picture of ethical values in caring encounters, based on experiences of those involved: Analysis of concepts developed from empirical studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive picture of ethical values in caring encounters, based on experiences of those involved: Analysis of concepts developed from empirical studies
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Older people should have a life with a sense of value and should feel confident. These ethical values, which are expressed in normative ethics, are expected to prevail in empirical ethics. Central components of nursing are the ethical issues of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and the principles of justice. The general aim of this thesis is to identify and describe the ethical values that are apparent in the caring encounter and their influence on the people involved. This is done from the perspective of the older person in study (I), next of kin in study (II) and nurses in study (III). In study (IV) the aim was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies (I- III) and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. Studies (I, III) were empirical observational studies including follow-up interviews. Twenty-two older people participated voluntarily in study (I), and in study (III) 20 nurses participated voluntarily. In study (II) fourteen next of kin were interviewed. In studies (I- III) constant comparative analysis, the core foundation of grounded theory, was used. Five concepts were used in the analysis in study (IV); three from the grounded theory studies (I- III) and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics i.e. the ICN code and SFS law. Five categories; being addressed, receiving respect, desiring to participate, increasing self-determination and gaining self-confidence formed the basis for the core category ‚Approaching‛ in study (I). ‘Approaching’ indicates the ethical values that guide nurses in their caring encounters with older people. These ethical values are noted by the older people and are greatly appreciated by them, and also lead to improved quality of care. Four categories were identified in study (II): Receiving, showing respect, facilitating participation and showing professionalism. These categories formed the basis of the core category ‚Being amenable‛, a concept identified in the next of kin’s description of the ethical values that they and the older patients perceive in the caring encounter. In study (III), three categories were identified: showing consideration, connecting, and caring for. These categories formed the basis of the core category ‚Corroborating‛. Corroborating deals with support and interaction. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined, according to the findings of this study (IV). Normative ethics influence the nurse’s practical performance and could have a greater influence in supporting nurses as professionals. Criteria of good ethical care according to this thesis are: showing respect, invitation to participation, allowing self-determination, and providing safe and secure care. These criteria are elements of the concept of being professional. Professionalism of nurses is shown by: the approach nurses adapt to the performance of their duties, and their competence and knowledge, but also how they apply laws and professional codes

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. 74 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1227
Keyword
Ethical values, grounded theory, older patient, next of kin, nursing care, qualitative methods, empirical ethics, normative ethics
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67878 (URN)978-91-7393-230-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-27, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved

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Jonasson, Lise-LotteBerterö, Carina

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