The effect of waiting: A meta-analysis of wait-list control groups in trials for tinnitus distress
2011 (English)In: JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH, ISSN 0022-3999, Vol. 70, no 4, 378-384 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Objective: The response rates and effects of being placed on a wait-list control condition are well documented in psychiatric populations. Despite the usefulness of such estimates and the frequent use of no-treatment controls in clinical trials for tinnitus, the effect of waiting in a tinnitus trial has not been investigated systematically. The aim of the present study was to quantify the overall effect of wait-list control groups on tinnitus distress. Methods: Studies were retrieved via a systematic review of randomised controlled trials of cognitive behaviour therapy for tinnitus distress. Outcomes of psychometrically robust tinnitus-specific measures (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Tinnitus Questionnaire, Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire) from wait-list control groups were quantified using meta-analytic techniques. Percentage of change and standard mean difference effect sizes were calculated using the pre and post wait period. Results: Eleven studies involving 314 wait-list subjects with tinnitus were located. The analysis for a waiting period of 6 to 12 weeks revealed a mean decrease in scores on tinnitus-specific measures of 3% to 8%. Across studies, a statically significant small mean within-group effect size was obtained (Hedges g=.17). The effects were moderated by methodological quality of the trial, sample characteristics (i.e., age, tinnitus duration), time of the wait-list and how diagnosis was established. Conclusion: Subjects in a tinnitus trial improve in tinnitus distress over a short waiting phase. The effects of waiting are highly variable and depend on the characteristics of the sample and of the trial.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. , 2011. Vol. 70, no 4, 378-384 p.
Tinnitus, Meta-analysis, Placebo effects, Wait-list group, Randomised controlled trial, Benchmark
National CategorySocial Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68017DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.12.006ISI: 000289340200011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-68017DiVA: diva2:415230