Integrated Code Generation
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Code generation in a compiler is commonly divided into several phases: instruction selection, scheduling, register allocation, spill code generation, and, in the case of clustered architectures, cluster assignment. These phases are interdependent; for instance, a decision in the instruction selection phase affects how an operation can be scheduled. We examine the effect of this separation of phases on the quality of the generated code. To study this we have formulated optimal methods for code generation with integer linear programming; first for acyclic code and then we extend this method to modulo scheduling of loops. In our experiments we compare optimal modulo scheduling, where all phases are integrated, to modulo scheduling where instruction selection and cluster assignment are done in a separate phase. The results show that, for an architecture with two clusters, the integrated method finds a better solution than the non-integrated method for 39% of the instances.
Our algorithm for modulo scheduling iteratively considers schedules with increasing number of schedule slots. A problem with such an iterative method is that if the initiation interval is not equal to the lower bound there is no way to determine whether the found solution is optimal or not. We have proven that for a class of architectures that we call transfer free, we can set an upper bound on the schedule length. I.e., we can prove when a found modulo schedule with initiation interval larger than the lower bound is optimal.
Another code generation problem that we study is how to optimize the usage of the address generation unit in simple processors that have very limited addressing modes. In this problem the subtasks are: scheduling, address register assignment and stack layout. Also for this problem we compare the results of integrated methods to the results of non-integrated methods, and we find that integration is beneficial when there are only a few (1 or 2) address registers available.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2011. , 169 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1375
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67471ISBN: 978-91-7393-147-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-67471DiVA: diva2:416671
2011-06-07, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Krall, Andreas, Professor
Kessler, Christoph, Professor