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Low zinc in drinking water is associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes in children
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
University of Tampere.
University of Tampere.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
2011 (English)In: PEDIATRIC DIABETES, ISSN 1399-543X, Vol. 12, no 3, 156-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To explore if drinking water may influence the development of type 1 diabetes in children, either via enterovirus spread via drinking water or quality of drinking water related to acidity or concentration of certain minerals. Methods: One hundred and forty-two families with a child with diabetes and who lived either in seven municipalities with a high annual diabetes incidence during 1977-2001 and in six municipalities with the lowest incidence during those 25 yr were asked to participate. Three hundred and seventy-three families in these communities were used as controls. The families filled a 200-mL plastic bottle with their tap drinking water and returned it by mail. The water samples were analyzed for pH, zinc, iron, nitrate, nitrite, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen, and occurrence of enterovirus RNA. Results: Enterovirus RNA was not found in the tap water samples. The concentration of zinc, nitrate, and nitrate-nitrogen was lower in the municipalities with high incidence of type 1 diabetes. The water samples from families with a child with diabetes had lower concentration of zinc than water samples from control families. Conclusion: Low zinc in drinking water is associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. Enterovirus does not seem to be spread via drinking water in a country with modern water works.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd , 2011. Vol. 12, no 3, 156-164 p.
Keyword [en]
children, enterovirus, environmental factors, incidence, type 1 diabetes
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68213DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2010.00678.xISI: 000289892200004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-68213DiVA: diva2:416878
Available from: 2011-05-13 Created: 2011-05-13 Last updated: 2011-05-13

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Samuelsson, UlfLudvigsson, Johnny

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