Low zinc in drinking water is associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes in children
2011 (English)In: PEDIATRIC DIABETES, ISSN 1399-543X, Vol. 12, no 3, 156-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Aim: To explore if drinking water may influence the development of type 1 diabetes in children, either via enterovirus spread via drinking water or quality of drinking water related to acidity or concentration of certain minerals. Methods: One hundred and forty-two families with a child with diabetes and who lived either in seven municipalities with a high annual diabetes incidence during 1977-2001 and in six municipalities with the lowest incidence during those 25 yr were asked to participate. Three hundred and seventy-three families in these communities were used as controls. The families filled a 200-mL plastic bottle with their tap drinking water and returned it by mail. The water samples were analyzed for pH, zinc, iron, nitrate, nitrite, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen, and occurrence of enterovirus RNA. Results: Enterovirus RNA was not found in the tap water samples. The concentration of zinc, nitrate, and nitrate-nitrogen was lower in the municipalities with high incidence of type 1 diabetes. The water samples from families with a child with diabetes had lower concentration of zinc than water samples from control families. Conclusion: Low zinc in drinking water is associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. Enterovirus does not seem to be spread via drinking water in a country with modern water works.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd , 2011. Vol. 12, no 3, 156-164 p.
children, enterovirus, environmental factors, incidence, type 1 diabetes
National CategoryMedical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68213DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2010.00678.xISI: 000289892200004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-68213DiVA: diva2:416878