liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Immunohistochemical distribution of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzymes in the human vagina:: A potential forensic value?
Hannover Medical School, Deparment of Legal Medicine, Hannover, Germany.
Hanover Medical School, Department of Urology, Hannover, Germany.
University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Department of Urology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Lund University Hospital, Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Lund, Sweden.
Show others and affiliations
2007 (English)In: Journal of forensic and legal medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, Vol. 14, no 5, 270-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]


Phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzymes are key proteins involved in the maintenance of the normal function of various tissues of the human body including those of the male and female urogenital tract. More recently, PDEs and their main substrates, cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP, have also been assumed to play a crucial role in the control of the human vagina. In order to elucidate the potential significance of phosphodiesterases as marker proteins in female genital organs, it was the aim of the present study to evaluate by means of immunohistochemistry the distribution of cGMP- and cAMP-PDE isoenzymes in specimens of the human vagina.


Conventional immunohistochemical techniques (double antibody technique, laser fluorescence microscopy) were applied to sections of the human vaginal wall in order to evaluate the presence of the PDE isoenzymes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10.


Immunoreactivities (IR) specific for PDE1 (cAMP/cGMP-PDE, Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent), PDE2 (cAMP-PDE, cGMP-dependent) and PDE5 (cGMP-PDE) were exclusively registered in the smooth musculature of vaginal arterial vessels, whereas no signals were detected in non-vascular tissue. IR indicating the expression of the cAMP-degrading PDE4 was mainly observed in the vaginal epithelium. Vaginal epithelial cells also presented immunosignals specific for PDE3 (cAMP-PDE, inhibited by cGMP) and PDE10 (dual substrate PDE), nevertheless, these stainings were less abundant than those related to the PDE4. IR for PDE10 was also registered in inflammatory cells located in the subepithelial region of the vaginal wall.


Our study revealed the presence of IR specific for PDE1, PDE2, PDE4, PDE5 and PDE10 in sections of the human vagina and demonstrated that these enzymes are not evenly distributed in the tissue. Especially, the prominent expression of the cyclic AMP-PDE4A in the vaginal epithelium may give hint to a potential significance of this isoenzyme as a forensic marker protein. The findings give a rationale to investigate further as to whether the immunohistochemical detection of PDE4 may represent a new forensic tool in order to identify human vaginal epithelial cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 14, no 5, 270-274 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69411DOI: 10.1016/j.jcfm.2006.08.010PubMedID: 17113813OAI: diva2:427064
Available from: 2011-06-27 Created: 2011-06-27 Last updated: 2012-05-14

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Hedlund, Petter
By organisation
Clinical Pharmacology
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 69 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link