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The Nonpenetrating Telescopic Sham Needle may Blind Patients with Different Characteristics and Experiences when Treated by several Therapists.
Vårdalinstitutet Lund, Klinisk neurovetenskap Karolinska Institutet, Omvårdnad Hälsouniversitetet Linköping.
Onkologiska kliniken, Lunds Universitetssjukhus.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
Klinisk cancerepidemiologi Karolinska Institutet, Klinisk cancerepidemiologi Sahlgrenska akademin.
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2011 (English)In: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1741-427X, 1-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. Little is known which factors influence the blinding in acupuncture studies. Aim. To investigate if blinding variedbetween patients with different characteristics receiving verum or sham acupuncture.

Methods. We randomised cancer patientsto verum (n = 109) or sham acupuncture (n = 106) with a nonpenetrating telescopic sham needle for nausea. Level of blindingwas compared between different sub-groups of patients using Bang’s blinding index (BI) ranged −1 to 1 (−1 = all state theopposite treatment, 1 = all identify treatment).

Results. Most patients in the verum (74 of 95; 78%, BI 0.72) and the sham (68 of95; 72%, BI −0.60). acupuncture group believed they had received verum acupuncture. The probability for a patient to believehe/she received verum acupuncture was related to the received needling type (P = .003) and to the patient’s belief in receivedtreatment effects (P = .008). Hospital (P = .425), therapist (P = .434), previous acupuncture experience (P = .578), occurrenceof nausea (P = .157), gender (P = .760), and age (P = .357) did not affect blinding.

Conclusions. Blinding was successfullyachieved irrespective of age, gender, acupuncture experience, treatment effect, or in which hospital or by which therapist thepatient received treatment. Patients with higher belief in the effect of the treatment were more likely to believe they had receivedverum acupuncture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation , 2011. 1-12 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69412DOI: 10.1155/2011/185034ISI: 000293392700001OAI: diva2:427083
Original Publication: Anna Enblom, Anna Johnsson, Mats Hammar, Gunnar Steineck and Sussanne Börjeson, The Nonpenetrating Telescopic Sham Needle may Blind Patients with Different Characteristics and Experiences when Treated by several Therapists., 2011, Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, (), , 1-12. Licensee: Hindawi Publishing Corporation / Oxford University Press (OUP) Available from: 2011-06-27 Created: 2011-06-27 Last updated: 2013-09-03

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Hammar, MatsBörjeson, Sussanne
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Obstetrics and gynecologyFaculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Gynecology and Obstetrics in LinköpingNursing ScienceDepartment of Oncology UHL
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Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Medical and Health Sciences

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