This thesis presents a solution enabling lower losses in hydraulic actuator systems. A mobile fluid power system often contains several different actuators supplied with a single load sensing pump. One of the main advantages is the need of only one system pump. This makes the fluid power system compact and cost-effective.
A hydraulic load often consists of two ports, e.g. motors and cylinders. Such loads have traditionally been controlled by a valve that controls these ports by one single control signal, namely the position of the spool in a control valve. In this kind of valve, the inlet (meter-in) and outlet (meter-out) orifices are mechanically connected. The mechanical connection makes the system robust and easy to control, at the same time as the system lacks flexibility. Some of the main drawbacks are
The fixed relation between the inlet and outlet orifices in most applications produce too much throttling at the outlet orifice under most operating conditions. This makes the system inefficient.
The flow directions are fixed for a given spool position; therefore, no energy recuperation and/or regeneration ability is available.
In this thesis a novel system idea enabling, for example, recuperation and regeneration is presented. Recuperation is when flow is taken from a tank, pressurized by external loads, and then fed back into the pump line. Regeneration is when either cylinder chambers (or motor ports) are connected to the pump line. Only one system pump is needed. Pressure compensated (load independent), bidirectional, poppet valves are proposed and utilized.
The novel system presented in this thesis needs only a position sensor on each compensator spool. This simple sensor is also suitable for identification of mode switches, e.g. between normal, differential and regenerative modes. Patent pending.
The balance of where to put the functionality (hardware and/or software) makes it possible to manoeuvre the system with maintained speed control in the case of sensor failure. The main reason is that the novel system does not need pressure transducers for flow determination. Some features of the novel system:
Mode switches The mode switches are accomplished without knowledge about the pressures in the system
Throttle losses With the new system approach, choice of control and measure signals, the throttle losses at the control valves are reduced
Smooth mode switches The system will switch to regenerative mode automatically in a smooth manner when possible
Use energy stored in the loads The load, e.g. a cylinder, is able to be used as a motor when possible, enabling the system to recuperate overrun loads
The system and its components are described together with the control algorithms that enable energy efficient operation. Measurements from a real application are also presented in the thesis.
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2007. , 60 p.
Fluid power, mode switch, energy efficient, independent metering, split spool, poppet
2007-12-20, A35, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Palmberg, Jan-Olov, ProfessorLarsson, Jonas, Dr.