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Static Friction in a Robot Joint: Modeling and Identification of Load and Temperature Effects
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2012 (English)In: Journal of Dynamic Systems Measurement, and Control, ISSN 0022-0434, E-ISSN 1528-9028, Vol. 134, no 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Friction is the result of complex interactions between contacting surfaces in down to a nanoscale perspective. Depending on the application, the different models available are more or less suitable. Static friction models are typically considered to be dependent only on relative speed of interacting surfaces. However, it is known that friction can be affected by other factors than speed.

In this paper, the typical friction phenomena and models used in robotics are reviewed. It is shown how such models can be represented as a sum of functions of relevant states which are linear and nonlinear in the parameters, and how the identification method described in Golub and Pereyra (1973) can be used to identify them when all states are measured. The discussion follows with a detailed experimental study of friction in a robot joint under changes of joint angle, load torque and temperature. Justified by their significance, load torque and temperature are included in an extended static friction model. The proposed model is validated in a wide operating range, considerably improving the prediction performance compared to a standard model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2012. Vol. 134, no 5
Keyword [en]
Robotics, Friction, Identification
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72971DOI: 10.1115/1.4006589ISI: 000308418400013OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-72971DiVA: diva2:464263
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2011-12-13 Created: 2011-12-13 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On Modeling and Diagnosis of Friction and Wear in Industrial Robots
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Modeling and Diagnosis of Friction and Wear in Industrial Robots
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industrial robots are designed to endure several years of uninterrupted operation and therefore are very reliable. However, no amount of design effort can prevent deterioration over time, and equipments will eventually fail. Its impacts can, nevertheless, be considerably reduced if good maintenance/service practices are performed. The current practice for service of industrial robots is based on preventive and corrective policies, with little consideration about the actual condition of the system. In the current scenario, the serviceability of industrial robots can be greatly improved with the use of condition monitoring/diagnosis methods, allowing for condition-based maintenance (cbm).

This thesis addresses the design of condition monitoring methods for industrial robots. The main focus is on the monitoring and diagnosis of excessive degradations caused by wear of the mechanical parts. The wear processes may take several years to be of significance, but can evolve rapidly once they start to appear. An early detection of excessive wear levels can therefore allow for cbm, increasing maintainability and availability. Since wear is related to friction, the basic idea pursued is to analyze the friction behavior to infer about wear.

To allow this, an extensive study of friction in robot joints is considered in this work. The effects of joint temperature, load and wear changes to static friction in robot a joint are modeled based on empirical observations. It is found that the effects of load and temperature to friction are comparable to those caused by wear. Joint temperature and load are typically not measured, but will always be present in applications. Therefore, diagnosis solutions must be able to cope with them.

Different methods are proposed which allow for robust wear monitoring. First, a wear estimator is suggested. Wear estimates are made possible with the use of a test-cycle and a friction model. Second, a method is defined which considers the repetitive behavior found in many applications of industrial robots. The result of the execution of the same task in different instances of time are compared to provide an estimate of how the system changed over the period. Methods are suggested that consider changes in the distribution of data logged from the robot. It is shown through simulations and experiments that robust wear monitoring  is made possible with the proposed methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 66 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1516
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72975 (URN)LiU-TEK-LIC-2012:1 (Local ID)978-91-7519-982-5 (ISBN)LiU-TEK-LIC-2012:1 (Archive number)LiU-TEK-LIC-2012:1 (OAI)
Presentation
2012-01-20, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-12-13 Created: 2011-12-13 Last updated: 2012-07-09Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling and Diagnosis of Friction and Wear in Industrial Robots
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Diagnosis of Friction and Wear in Industrial Robots
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

High availability and low operational costs are critical for industrial systems. While industrial equipments are designed to endure several years of uninterrupted operation, their behavior and performance will eventually deteriorate over time. To support service and operation decisions, it is important to devise methods to infer the condition of equipments from available data.

The monitoring of industrial robots is an important problem considered in this thesis. The main focus is on the design of methods for the detection of excessive degradations due to wear in a robot joint. Since wear is related to friction, an important idea for the proposed solutions is to analyze the behavior of friction in the joint to infer about wear. Based on a proposed friction model and friction data collected from dedicated experiments, a method is suggested to estimate wear-related effects to friction. As it is shown, the achieved estimates allow for a clear distinction of the wear effects even in the presence of large variations to friction associated to other variables, such as temperature and load.

In automated manufacturing, a continuous and repeatable operation of equipments is important to achieve production requirements. Such repetitive behavior of equipments is explored to define a data-driven approach to diagnosis. Considering data collected from a repetitive operation, an abnormality is inferred by comparing nominal against monitored data in the distribution domain. The approach is demonstrated with successful applications for the diagnosis of wear in industrial robots and gear faults in a rotating machine.

Because only limited knowledge can be embedded in a fault detection method, it is important to evaluate solutions in scenarios of practical relevance. A simulation based framework is proposed that allows for determination of which variables affect a fault detection method the most and how these variables delimit the effectiveness of the solution. Based on an average performance criterion, an approach is also suggested for a direct comparison of different methods. The ideas are illustrated for the robotics application, revealing properties of the problem and of different fault detection solutions.

An important task in fault diagnosis is a correct determination of presence of a condition change. An early and reliable detection of an abnormality is important to support service, giving enough time to perform maintenance and avoid downtime. Data-driven methods are proposed for anomaly detection that only require availability of nominal data and minimal/meaningful specification parameters from the user. Estimates of the detection uncertainties are also possible, supporting higher level service decisions. The approach is illustrated with simulations and real data examples including the robotics application.

Abstract [sv]

För industriella system är både hög tillgänglighet och låga driftskostnader avgörande. Industriella system är oftast utformad för att klara flera års oavbruten drift, men över tid kommer beteendet och prestandan så småningom att förändras. Det är därför viktigt att ta fram metoder som kan extrahera information från tillgänglig data och dra slutsatser om systemets beteende, som i sin tur används som stöd för beslut angående systemets fortsatta drift.Denna avhandling handlar om utformning och utvärdering av diagnostiska metoder för att stödja tids- och kostnadseffektiva beslut angående den fortsatta driften för systemet. I synnerhet studeras problemet med att upptäcka för höga nivåer av slitage i respektive led för en industrirobot. Eftersom slitage påverkar friktionen kan det vara en bra id{\'e} att analysera friktionen för att uppskatta hur stort slitage som har uppkommit. Baserat på en föreslagen friktionsmodell och friktionsdata från specialanpassade experiment föreslås en metod för att uppskatta slitagets omfattning. Metoden försöker anpassa modellen så att sannolikheten att mätningarna kommer från den föreslagna modellen maximeras. Det visar sig att tillförlitliga beräkningar av slitaget kan uppnås även vid stora variationer i belastningen på roboten samt temperaturen i robotens leder, vilket gör det möjligt att planera underhåll för roboten innan den går sönder.

Vidare undersöks hur ett systems repetitiva beteende, som är vanligt inom automatiserad tillverkning, kan utnyttjas för att skapa en metod för diagnos som endast använder befintlig data utan hjälp av någon modell. Med hjälp av data som har samlats in från en repetitiv process kan en förändring av processen upptäckas genom att jämföra data från systemet i felfri drift och befintlig drift. Metoden som föreslås utnyttjar den empiriska sannolikhetsfördelningen för systemet i felfri respektive befintlig drift. Det visar sig att metoden med framgång kan detektera slitage i lederna för en industrirobot samt växelfel i en roterande mekanism.I avhandlingen föreslås också metoder för feldetektering. Testet går ut på att man jämför två hypoteser mot varandra genom ett statistiskt ramverk. För att upptäcka en förändring av ett system är det naturligt att de två hypoteserna motsvarar ett system utan fel respektive ett system med fel. Det enda som förutsätts är att data från systemet utan fel är tillgängligt. En annan viktig del är att kunna jämföra olika diagnosmetoder för att se vilken som passar bäst till det aktuella problemet. Ett ramverk baserat på simuleringar har därför föreslagits för utvärdering av diagnosmetoder. Ramverket kan användas för att avgöra vilka variabler som påverkar metoden mest, hur man jämför olika metoder samt hur man bestämmer det effektiva användningsområdet för respektive metod. De föreslagna diagnosmetoderna och ramverket för utvärdering av diagnosmetoderna är generella men illustreras i avhandlingen på tillämpningar för industrirobotar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 208 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1617
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109335 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-109335 (DOI)978-91-7519-251-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-09-26, Visionen, B building, Campus Valla, Linköping University, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Vinnova Excellence Center LINK-SIC
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2014-09-08 Created: 2014-08-13 Last updated: 2014-09-29Bibliographically approved

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Carvalho Bittencourt, AndréGunnarsson, Svante

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