Spontaneous formation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid from gamma-butyrolactone in tap water solutions
2011 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 210, no 1-3, 247-256 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The spontaneous conversion of g-butyrolactone (GBL) to g-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in seven different Swedish tap waters was investigated. The waters used in the study were selected to represent the diversity among Swedish tap waters as well as possible, which was enabled by principal component analysis (PCA) of a number of water quality parameters. GBL solutions (5, 25 and 50% v/v) were prepared in each of the tap waters and in deionized water and the formation of GHB was followed over time. The GHB quantifications were made using a CZE method, employing a carrier electrolyte consisting of 25 mM benzoic acid, 54 mM tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (Tris) and 1.7 mM tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB), which was developed as a part of the current study. Data evaluation showed that the formation of GHB was largely dependent on the type of tap water. For example, there was a negative correlation between the kinetics of the GHB formation and the alkalinity of the tap waters (r(2) = 0.990). This could be explained by a faster decrease in pH in the waters with low buffering capacity (i.e. low alkalinity), which catalysed the hydrolysis of GBL. Equilibrium was reached after 40-250 days depending on the initial GBL concentration and the type of tap water. The level of the equilibrium appeared to be dependent on the initial GBL concentration and ranged from 26 to 37%. Gained knowledge on the levels of the GHB/GBL equilibrium and the kinetics of the formation of GHB in tap water solutions of GBL, including the influence of the tap water quality, may be useful information for casework with the GHB/GBL problem in focus. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. , 2011. Vol. 210, no 1-3, 247-256 p.
GHB; gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid; gamma-Butyrolactone; Conversion; Capillary electrophoresis; Tap water
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72965DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.03.016ISI: 000292034300044OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-72965DiVA: diva2:464275