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Sulphur K-edge XANES and acid volatile sulphide analyses of changes in chemical speciation of S and Fe during sequential extraction of trace metals in anoxic sludge from biogas reactors
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
2012 (English)In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 89, 470-477 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of sequential extraction of trace metals on sulphur (S) speciation in anoxic sludge samples from two lab-scale biogas reactors augmented with Fe was investigated. Analyses of sulphur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (S XANES) spectroscopy and acid volatile sulphide (AVS) were conducted on the residues from each step of the sequential extraction. The S speciation in sludge samples after AVS analysis was also determined by S XANES. Sulphur was mainly present as FeS (~60% of total S) and reduced organic S (~30% of total S), such as organic sulphide and thiol groups, in the anoxic solid phase. Sulphur XANES and AVS analyses showed that during first step of the extraction procedure (the. removal of exchangeable cations), a part of the FeS fraction corresponding to 20% of total S was transformed to zero-valent S, whereas Fe was not released into the solution during this transformation. After the last extraction step (organic/sulphide fraction) a secondary Fe phase was formed. The change in chemical speciation of S and Fe occurring during sequential extraction procedure suggests indirect effects on trace metals associated to the FeS fraction that may lead to incorrect results. Furthermore, by S XANES it was verified that the AVS analysis effectively removed the FeS fraction. The present results identified critical limitations for the application of sequential extraction for trace metal speciation analysis outside the framework for which the methods were developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012. Vol. 89, 470-477 p.
Keyword [en]
Sequential extraction, Biogas, Sulphur speciation, Sulphur K-edge XANES, Acid volatile sulphide, Trace metals
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73112DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.12.065ISI: 000301278000068OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-73112DiVA: diva2:466538
Note
funding agencies|Swedish Energy Agency||Available from: 2011-12-16 Created: 2011-12-16 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cobalt and Nickel Bioavailability for Biogas Formation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cobalt and Nickel Bioavailability for Biogas Formation
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Supplementation of trace metals such as Co and Ni may improve anaerobic digestion of organic material for biogas formation. Which trace metals that are needed and the quantity to apply are, at least partly, related to metal speciation and bioavailability. According to the common perception, metals have to be dissolved to be available for microbial uptake. However, the impact of trace metal speciation on bioavailability is still unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Fe-, Co- and Ni-addition on the biogas process performance of stillage-fed lab-scale biogas tank reactors. Metal speciation was determined by sequential extraction (SE), extraction of acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and continuously extracted metals (AVS-Me). Sulfur forms, which may be associated to metal speciation, were studied with S XANES (sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure). The effect of different Co- and Ni-concentrations on process microflora composition was examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 454-pyrosequencing.

The results showed that Co- and Ni-supplementation stimulated and stabilized the biogas process performance by increasing methane production and substrate utilization and by establishing low concentrations of volatile fatty acids. 10-20% of the total Co-amount was found in the dissolved phase, which shows that Co was relatively available for microbial uptake. Nickel was entirely associated to organic matter/sulfides and AVS, and was therefore considered to be non-bioavailable. Nevertheless, Ni-supplementation had stimulatory effects on the biogas process performance. This implies that Ni was available for microbial uptake despite its extensive association to sulfides and that other mechanisms than solubility govern the availability of this trace metal. The microbial analyzes revealed that it was primarily the methane producers which were affected by the concentration of Co and Ni. At stimulatory Co- and Ni-concentrations, the archaeal methanogenic community was dominated by aceticlastic Methanosarcinales. At lower Co- or Ni-levels, when biogas process performance was poor, an increase in hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales was observed. This indicates a shift in the methanogenic flora, from being dominated by acetate utilizers to increased importance of hydrogen utilizers, and that the former was more dependent on Co and Ni.

Abstract [sv]

Tillsats av spårmetaller kan förbättra rötning av organiskt material till biogas. Typ och mängd av respektive spårmetall som behöver tillsättas för att uppnå stimulerande effekter, varierar mellan processer. Detta är delvis kopplat till specieringen och biotillgängligheten av metallerna. Endast fria metalljoner och vissa metallkomplex antas vara tillgängliga för mikrobiellt upptag. Det är dock i många fall oklart hur metallernas speciering påverkar biotillgängligheten. Syftet med föreliggande studie var därför att undersöka effekten av tillsats av Fe, Co och Ni för biogasproduktion från drank, en restprodukt i produktion av bioetanol från spannmål, samt att undersöka hur dessa metallers speciering påverkar deras biotillgänglighet. Effekten av tillsatserna av Fe, Co och Ni undersöktes på biogasreaktorer i lab-skala. Metallernas speciering bestämdes genom sekventiell extraktion (SE), extraktion av AVS (acid volatile sulfide) och kontinuerligt extraherade metaller (AVS-Me). Svavelformer med betydelse för metallspeciering studerades med S XANES (sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure). Effekten av olika Co- och Ni-koncentrationer på processens mikroflora undersöktes molekylärbiologiskt med kvantitativ PCR (qPCR) och 454-pyrosekvensering.

Resultaten visade att Co och Ni stimulerade och stabiliserade biogasprocessen genom ökad metanproduktion, ökad utrötningsgrad samt låga halter av flyktiga fettsyror i det studerade systemet. 10-20% av totala mängden Co återfanns i löst fas, vilket visar att Co var relativt lättillgängligt för mikroorganismerna. Nickel var däremot enbart bundet till organiskt material/sulfider och AVS och kunde alltså betraktas som otillgängligt. Trots detta hade även tillsatsen av Ni stimulerande effekter på biogasprocessen. Det innebär att mikroorganismerna har förmåga att komma åt Ni bundet i svårlösliga sulfidföreningar och att andra mekanismer än löslighet reglerar tillgängligheten av denna spårmetall. De molekylärbiologiska analyserna visade att framför allt de metanbildande mikroorganismerna påverkades av halten av Co och Ni. De halter, som gav välfungerande processer, dominerades helt av acetiklastiska Methanosarcinales. Vid lägre halter av Co eller Ni, då processerna gick sämre, tillkom vätgasutnyttjande metanogener. Det tyder på ett skift i bildningen av metan från att ha dominerats av acetatklyvning till att vätgasutnyttjarna fått större betydelse och att de förra är mer beroende av Co och Ni.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 49 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 549
Keyword
Biogas production, bioavailability, cobalt, nickel, sequential extraction, S XANES, 454-pyrosequencing., Biogasproduktion, biotillgänglighet, kobolt, nickel, sekventiell extraktion, S XANES, 454-pyrosekvensering
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73113 (URN)978-91-7519-989-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-01-19, Vallfarten, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-12-16 Created: 2011-12-16 Last updated: 2012-01-31Bibliographically approved
2. Chemical Speciation of Sulfur and Metals in Biogas Reactors: Implications for Cobalt and Nickel Bio-uptake Processes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical Speciation of Sulfur and Metals in Biogas Reactors: Implications for Cobalt and Nickel Bio-uptake Processes
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Kemisk speciering av svavel och metaller i biogasreaktorer : implikationer för bioupptag av kobolt och nickel
Abstract [en]

A balanced supply of micronutrients, including metals such as iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni), is required for the efficient and stable production of biogas. During biogas formation, the uptake of micronutrient metals by microorganisms is controlled by a complex network of biological and chemical reactions, in which reduced sulfur (S) compounds play a central role. This thesis addresses the interrelationship between the overall chemical speciation of S, Fe, Co, and Ni in relation to the metals bio-uptake processes. Laboratory continuous stirred tank biogas reactors (CSTBR) treating S-rich grain stillage, as well as a number full-scale CSTBRs treating sewage sludge and various combinations of organic wastes, termed co-digestion, were considered. Sulfur speciation was evaluated using acid volatile sulfide (AVS) extraction and S X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The chemical speciation of Fe, Co, and Ni was evaluated through the determination of aqueous metals and metal fractions pertaining to solid phases, as well as kinetic and thermodynamic analyses (chemical speciation modelling). The relative Fe to S content in biogas reactors, which in practice is regulated through the addition of Fe for the purpose of sulfide removal or prior to the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, is identified as a critical factor for the chemical speciation and bio-uptake of metals. In the reactors treating sewage sludge, the quantity of Fe exceeds that of S, inducing Fe(II)-dominated conditions under anaerobic conditions, while sulfide dominates in the co-digestion and laboratory reactors due to an excess of S over Fe. Under sulfide-dominated conditions, chemical speciation of the metals is regulated by hydrogen sulfide and the formation of metal sulfide precipitates, which in turn restrict the availability of metals for microorganisms. However, despite the limitations set by sulfide, aqueous concentrations of different Co and Ni species were shown to be sufficient to support metal acquisition by the microorganisms under sulfidic conditions. Comparatively, the concentrations of free metal ions and labile metal-phosphate and -carbonate complexes in aqueous phase, which directly participate in bio-uptake processes, are higher under Fe-dominated conditions. This results in an enhanced metal adsorption on cell surfaces and faster bio-uptake rates. It is therefore suggested that the chemical speciation and potential bioavailability of metals may be controlled through adjustments of the influent Fe concentration in relation to S content. The results also indicated that the pool of metal sulfides in the biogas reactors could be regarded as a source of metals for microbial activities. Thus, the recovery and utilisation of this fraction of metals may be considered as a measure with which to minimise the metal dosing concentrations to CSTBRs.

Abstract [sv]

För att en effektiv och stabil biogasproduktion från organiskt avfall skall uppnås, behöver mikroorganismer i biogasreaktorer ha tillgång till näringsämnen inklusive spårmetaller såsom järn (Fe), kobolt (Co), och nickel (Ni). Mikroorganismernas upptag av spårmetaller styrs av biologiska och kemiska reaktioner som påverkar metallernas tillgänglighet, där framför allt interaktioner mellan metaller och reducerat svavel (S) spelar en viktig roll. Avhandlingen analyserar sambandet mellan kemisk speciering av S, Fe, Co, och Ni i relation till metallernas biologiska upptagsprocesser. Omrörda tankreaktorer (CSTBR) i lab.- och fullskala för produktion av biogas från spannmålsdrank, avloppsslam, och olika kombinationer av organiska avfall (samrötning) har utgjort basen för studierna. Svavelspeciering analyserades med hjälp av AVS (acid volatile sulfide) extraktion och S XANES (sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure). Speciering av Fe, Co, och Ni utvärderades med hjälp av sekventiell extraktion, mätning av metall koncentrationer i löst och fast faser samt genom kinetiska och termodynamiska analyser (kemisk specieringsmodellering). Biogasreaktorers relativa mängder av Fe och S, identifierades som en central faktor för kemisk speciering och bio-upptag av metaller. Järn-mängden regleras bl a genom tillsats av Fe för att rena biogasen från vätesulfid eller vid diverse fällningsreaktioner i reningsverk före rötningsstegen av avloppsslam. Därför är järnhalterna högre än S-halterna i reaktorer, som behandlar avloppsslam. Detta leder till en Fe(II)-dominerande miljö. Däremot dominerade vätesulfid i de samrötnings- och laboratoriereaktorer, som ingick i studien. Under dessa förhållande styrs den kemiska metallspecieringen av sulfid och fr a genom fällning av metallsulfider, som då begränsar tillgängligheten av metaller för mikroorganismerna. Trots begränsningarna via sulfidfällningen var koncentrationen av de lösta Co och Ni formerna tillräckliga för bio-upptag av dessa metaller. Vid de Fe-dominerade förhållandena var koncentrationer av fria metalljoner och labila komplex (t.ex. med fosfat och karbonat), som direkt deltar i bio-upptagsprocesser, relativt höga, vilket medför relativt goda möjligheter för metalladsorption till cellytor och bio-upptag. Resultaten visar att den kemiska specieringen och därmed biotillgängligheten av metaller skulle kunna regleras genom justering av inflödet Fe i förhållande till S. Resultaten visade också att metallsulfider i fast fas sannolikt utnyttjas av mikroorganismer som en källa till metaller. Det innebär att en återanvändning av denna metallfraktion skulle kunna utnyttjas som en del i att minimera metalldoseringskoncentrationer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 46 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 637
Keyword
Biogas, Anaerobic digestion, Chemical speciation, bio-uptake, Sulfur, Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Biogas, Anaerob nedbrytning, Kemisk speciering, Bio-upptag, Svavel, Järn, Kobolt, Nickel
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112855 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-112855 (DOI)978-91-7519-162-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-01-22, Vallfarten, Hus Vallfarten, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2014-12-19Bibliographically approved

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