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Variability and Customization of Simulator Products : A Product Line Approach in Model Based Systems Engineering
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

AIRCRAFT DEVELOPERS, like other organizations within development and manufacturing, are experiencing increasing complexity in their products and growing competition in the global market. Products are built from increasingly advanced technologies and their mechanical, electronic, and software parts grow in number and become more interconnected. Different approaches are used to manage information and knowledge of products in various stages of their lifecycle.

"Reuse" and "Model Based Development" are two prominent trends for improving industrial development efficiency. The product line approach is used to reduce the time to create product variants by reusing components. The model based approach provides means to capture knowledge about a system in the early lifecycle stages for usage throughout its entire lifetime. It also enables structured data  management as a basis for analysis, automation, and team collaboration for efficient management of large systems and families of products.

This work is focused on the combination of methods and techniques within;

  • modeling and simulation-based development, and
  • (re)use of simulation models through the product line concept.

With increasing computational performance and more efficient techniques/tools for building simulation models, the number of models increases, and their usage ranges from concept evaluation to end-user training. The activities related to model verification and validation contribute to a large part of the overall cost for development and maintenance of simulation models. The studied methodology aims to reduce the number of similar models created by different teams during design, testing, and end-user support of industrial products.

Results of the work include evaluation of a configurator to customize and integrate simulation models for different types of aircraft simulators that are part of a simulator product family. Furthermore, contribution comprises results where constraints in the primary product family (aircraft) govern the configuration space of the secondary product family (simulators). Evaluation of the proposed methodology was carried out in cooperation with the simulator department for the 39 Gripen fighter aircraft at Saab Aeronautics.

Abstract [sv]

FLYGPLANSTILLVERKARE LIKSOM andra industrier inom utveckling och tillverkning, hanterar ökande komplexitet i sina produkter och upplever en större konkurrens på den globala marknaden. Produkter byggs från allt mer avancerad teknologi. Ingående delar av mekanik, elektronik och mjukvara växer i antal och blir allt mer integrerade. Olika metoder används för att hantera information och kunskap om produkter i olika steg av dess livscykel.

”Återanvändning” och ”Modellbaserad utveckling” är två tydliga trender för att öka effektiviteten inom industriell utveckling. Produktfamiljer används för att minska ledtider när man skapar varianter av produkter genom att återanvända färdiga komponenter. Modellbaserade metoder ger möjlighet att tidigt i livscykeln samla kunskap om ett system för att användas under hela systemets livstid. De ger också strukturerad hantering av data som grund för analys, automatisering och samarbete mellan utvecklingsteam, vilket är en förutsättning för effektiv hantering av komplexa system och produkter.

Detta arbete är fokuserat på en kombination av metoder och tekniker för;

  • utveckling som baseras på modellering och simulering, och
  • (åter)användning av simuleringsmodeller.

Med ökande beräkningsprestanda och effektivare metoder/verktyg för att bygga simuleringsmodeller så ökar antalet modeller och deras användning spänner allt från konceptvärderingen till utbildning av slutanvändare. Arbetet med verifiering och validering av simuleringsmodeller utgör en stor del av deras totala utvecklings- och underhållskostnader. De studerade metoderna syftar till att minska antalet liknande modeller som hanteras av olika team för olika syften, som till exempel; utveckling, verifiering och som stöd för slutanvändare.

Resultat av arbete inkluderar utvärdering av en konfigurator för att välja, integrera och anpassa simuleringsmodeller för olika typer av flygplanssimulatorer i en simulatorproduktfamilj. Dessutom bidrar arbetet med en metodik där begränsningarna i den primära produktfamiljen (flygplan) begränsar konfigurationsutrymmet för den sekundära produktfamiljen (simulatorer). Utvärdering av den föreslagna metoden har genomförts i samarbete med simulatoravdelning för flygplan 39 Gripen på Saab Aeronautics.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 83 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1427
National Category
Computer and Information Science Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73572 (URN)978-91-7519-963-4 (ISBN)oai:DiVA.org:liu-73572 (OAI)diva2:474629 (DiVA)
Public defence
2012-03-08, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from2012-02-16 Created:2012-01-09 Last updated:2012-02-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experience from introducing Unified Modeling Language/Systems Modeling Language at Saab Aerosystems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experience from introducing Unified Modeling Language/Systems Modeling Language at Saab Aerosystems
2010 (English)In: Systems Engineering, ISSN 1098-1241, E-ISSN 1520-6858, Vol. 13, no 4, 369-380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A Unified Modeling Language/Systems Modeling Language (UML/SysML) subset was the modeling notation selected for an aerospace systems engineering project at Saab Aerosystems. In this paper, the rationale for selecting UML/SysML is given, along with a description of the situation at the project planning stage regarding business conditions, method and tools support. The usage of use case, sequence, and activity diagrams are described as well as definition of functional chains with SysML. Furthermore, the connections to system implementation activities including code generation and simulation are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of using UML/SysML from experience in an industrial context are reported.

It is also described how UML/SysML is related to industrial research projects in the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methods and tools area. Introducing UML/SysML with a methodology and a supporting toolset in an operative organization require a clear strategy, including planning, just-in-time training, and mentor support. Finally, industrial needs for further development of SysML are discussed.

Publisher, range
Wiley, 2010
Keyword
Systems Modeling Language, Unified Modeling Language, Model Based Systems Engineering, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17941 (URN)10.1002/sys.20156 (DOI)000284008700005 ()
Available from2009-04-27 Created:2009-04-27 Last updated:2012-02-16Bibliographically approved
2. Model Based Systems Engineering for Aircraft Systems – How does Modelica Based Tools Fit?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model Based Systems Engineering for Aircraft Systems – How does Modelica Based Tools Fit?
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International Modelica Conference, March 20th-22nd, Technical Univeristy, Dresden, Germany / [ed] Clauß, Christoph, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, 856-864Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Saab Aeronautics has chosen Modelica and Dymola as part of the means for model based system engineering (MBSE). This paper will point out why a considerable effort has been made to migrate models from other simulation tools to Dymola. The paper also shows how the models and tools are used, experiences gained from usage in an industrial context as well as some remaining trouble spots.

Publisher, range
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686 (print), 1650-3740 (online) ; 63
Keyword
MBSE, Dymola, Aircraft simulation, Model integration, Modelica
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73511 (URN)10.3384/ecp11063856 (DOI)978-91-7393-096-3 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Modelica Conference, March 20th-22nd, Technical Univeristy, Dresden, Germany
Available from2012-01-06 Created:2012-01-06 Last updated:2012-02-16Bibliographically approved
3. Variability and Configuration Principles for Simulation Models in Product Line Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variability and Configuration Principles for Simulation Models in Product Line Development
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the 7th European Systems Engineering Conference, EuSEC 2010: Systems Engineering & Innovation / [ed] INCOSE, 2010, 15-Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper defines the challenges and needs related to Configuration Management of large scale aeronautical simulation systems, where the MBSE approach is a guiding force. The basic problem is to support modeling and simulation of all variants of a product line. The simulation models may be used in (at least) three different contexts; development, verification and training, each with their specific objectives.

Assumptions and basic components of the research issue are as follows: There exists a defined product line. The product line is modeled with respect of

  • Configuration; for certification, delivery, and maintenance in a PDM/PLM context
  • Behavior; for development, verification and training in a simulation context

Configurable simulation models are developed and maintained to represent parts/modules of the product line as well as the environment where the products operate. Each simulation model included in any utilized simulation system can be viewed as a module in a (simulation product) platform. The modular models are stored in a model library for easy access and inclusion in a simulation system. Every model must be configurable in at least three dimensions; representation, usage and implementation. They will represent a specific product within the product family, they will be used in some of the three contexts (development, verification and training) and they will be implemented in a specific simulation platform/architecture.

Management of configurable simulation models in the described context is an increasingly challenging activity. Supporting systems and methods for configuration and integration of models and simulation systems are not mature and do not scale up. To view the model set as a Software Product Line representing the Product Line of the end products is an approach to more stringent map the simulation models to the real product/system. A concept of a structured ConfiguratioN datA object (CNA-string) is introduced as a means to integrate configuration information and to be used for simulation set-up purposes. Application example in the work is the light weight fighter aircraft Saab 39 Gripen.

Keyword
MBSE, PDM, PLM, CSM, Simulation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60818 (URN)
Conference
7th European Systems Engineering Conference EuSEC 2010. Systems Engineering and Innovation, Stockholm, Sweden, May 23–26
Available from2010-10-27 Created:2010-10-27 Last updated:2012-02-16Bibliographically approved
4. Configuration Management of Models for Aircraft Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configuration Management of Models for Aircraft Simulation
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the 27th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, 2010, 10-Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Support for configuration and instantiation of large-scale aircraft simulations has become a major issue as the numbers of models grow, model fidelity increases and there is a trend to design models to allow reuse between simulation environments. In this work a method for configuration support is presented that is based on the Product Line principles with structures and data inherited from the Product Data Management system. An XML-based information object to carry product configuration data and knowledge between tools, called a CNA-string is introduced. A rule-based method to support specification of consistent configurations is adopted from the sales configuration domain. The application example is configurations of the Gripen fighter aircraft simulation models.

Keyword
Software Product Line, Modularity, Configurator, Simulation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60821 (URN)
Conference
The 27th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, 19-24 September, Nice, France
Available from2010-10-27 Created:2010-10-27 Last updated:2012-02-16Bibliographically approved
5. Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models
2012 (English)In: 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Online Proceedings including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition (2012), AIAA, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a framework for development and validation of multipurpose simulation models. The presented methodology enables reuse of models in different applications with different purposes. The scope is simulation models representing physical environment, physical aircraft systems or subsystems, avionics equipment, and electronic hardware. The methodology has been developed by a small interdisciplinary team, with experience from Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of vehicle systems as well as development of simulators for verification and training. Special care has been taken to ensure usability of the workflow and method descriptions, mainly by means of 1) a user friendly format, easy to overview and update, 2) keeping the amount of text down, and 3) providing relevant examples, templates, and checklists. A simulation model of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of a military fighter aircraft, the Saab Gripen, is used as an example to guide the reader through the workflow of developing and validating multipurpose simulation models. The methods described in the paper can be used in both military and civil applications, and are not limited to the aircraft industry.

Publisher, range
AIAA, 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74716 (URN)10.2514/6.2012-877 (DOI)
Conference
50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, 9–12 January, 2012, Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center, 9-12 January, Nashville, Tennessee
Available from2012-02-06 Created:2012-02-06 Last updated:2014-11-10
6. Towards Configuration Support for Collaborative Simulator Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Configuration Support for Collaborative Simulator Development : A Product Line Approach in Model Based Systems Engineering
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2011 20th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies, WETICE 2011: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 185-192Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In development and support of complex products such as power plants, automotive vehicles, or aircrafts, modeling and simulation has become an important activity as a basis for knowledge capture. Simulation is used in several steps of the product lifecycle; for evaluation of early design, for system verification, and for user training. With emerging techniques such as tools for high-level modeling, multi-core computing, and visualization, the number of useful models is growing. This paper focuses on reuse of multipurpose models and configuration support in a product line context. A configurator prototype system is presented. The simulator set created from validated models is considered to be a secondary product line. The product set which the simulation models represent is considered to be the primary product line. The Saab Gripen fighter aircraft, together with simulators in which the aircraft behavior, performance, and handling qualities are represented, is used to exemplify application. Integration principles of the systems for simulator configuration, Software Configuration Management, and Product Data Management (PDM) are studied. Preliminary results show that a configurator tool can be used, but there is need to map structures between the simulation and PDM domains.

Publisher, range
IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
Keyword
MBSE, Product Line, Configurator, Simulation
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70177 (URN)10.1109/WETICE.2011.74 (DOI)2-s2.0-80052639762 (ScopusID)978-0-7695-4410-6 (www) (ISBN)978-1-4577-0134-4 (print) (ISBN)
Conference
20th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructures for Collaborative Enterprises, 27-29 June, Paris, France
Available from2011-08-23 Created:2011-08-23 Last updated:2012-02-16Bibliographically approved
7. Experience from Model and Software Reuse in Aircraft Simulator Product Line Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experience from Model and Software Reuse in Aircraft Simulator Product Line Engineering
2013 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, Vol. 55, no 3, 595-606Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: "Reuse" and "Model Based Development" are two prominent trends for improving industrial development efficiency. Product lines are used to reduce the time to create product variants by reusing components. The model based approach provides the opportunity to enhance knowledge capture for a system in the early stages in order to be reused throughout its lifecycle. This paper describes how these two trends are combined to support development and support of a simulator product line for the SAAB 39 Gripen fighter aircraft.

Objective: The work aims at improving the support (in terms of efficiency and quality) when creating simulation model configurations. The objective is to increase the level of reuse when combining and customizing models for usage in a range of development and training simulators.

Method: The research has been conducted with an interactive approach using prototyping and demonstrations, and the evaluation is based on an iterative and a retrospective method.

Results: A product line of simulator models for the SAAB 39 Gripen aircraft has been analyzed and defined in a Product Variant Master. A configurator system has been implemented for creation, integration, and customization of stringent simulator model configurations. The system is currently under incorporation in the standard development process at SAAB Aeronautics.

Conclusion: The explicit and visual description of products and their variability through a configurator system enables better insights and a common understanding so that collaboration on possible product configurations improves and the potential of software reuse increases. The combination of application fields imposes constraints on how traditional tools and methods may be utilized. Solutions for Design Automation and Knowledge Based Engineering are available, but their application has limitations for Software Product Line engineering and the reuse of simulation models.

Keyword
Software Product Line; SPL; Knowledge Based Engineering; KBE; Model Based Development; Simulation; Configurator; Customization; PDM; SCM
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75077 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2012.06.014, 2012 (DOI)000315369200008 ()
Available from2012-02-16 Created:2012-02-16 Last updated:2013-04-05

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