Time trends in STEMI—improved treatment and outcome but still a gender gap: a prospective observational cohort study from the SWEDEHEART register
2012 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Objective In ST elevation myocardial infarction women received less evidence-based medicine and had worse outcome during the fibrinolytic era. With the shift to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) as preferred reperfusion strategy, the authors aimed to investigate whether these gender differences has diminished.
Design, setting and participants Cohort study including consecutive ST elevation myocardial infarction patients registered 1998–2000 (n=15 697) and 2004–2006 (n=14 380) in the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions.
Outcome measures 1. Use of evidence-based medicine such as reperfusion therapy (pPCI or fibrinolysis) and evidence-based drugs at discharge. 2. Inhospital and 1-year mortality.
Results Of those who got reperfusion therapy, pPCI was the choice in 9% in the early period compared with 68% in the late period. In the early period, reperfusion therapy was given to 63% of women versus 71% of men, p<0.001. Corresponding figures in the late period were 64% vs 75%, p<0.001. After multivariable adjustments, the ORs (women vs men) were 0.86 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.94) in the early and 0.80 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.89) in the late period. As regards evidence-based secondary preventive drugs at discharge in hospital survivors (platelet inhibitors, statins, ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and β-blockers), there were small gender differences in the early period. In the late period, women had 14%–25% less chance of receiving these drugs, OR 0.75 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.81) through 0.86 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.00). In both periods, multivariable-adjusted inhospital mortality was higher in women, OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.36) and 1.21 (1.00 to 1.46). One-year mortality was gender equal, HR 0.95 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.05) and 0.96 (0.86 to 1.08), after adding evidence-based medicine to the multivariable adjustments.
Conclusion In spite of an intense gender debate, focus on guideline adherence and the change in reperfusion strategy, the last decade gender differences in use of reperfusion therapy and evidence-based therapy at discharge did not decline during the study period, rather the opposite. Moreover, higher mortality in women persisted.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 2, no 2
ST-elevation myocardial infarction, sex factors, reperfusion therapy, mortality, evidence-based medicine
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73914DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000726ISI: 000315042100057OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-73914DiVA: diva2:478618