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Optimal use of forest residues in Europe under different policies — second generation biofuels versus combined heat and power
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
2013 (English)In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6823, Vol. 3, no 1, 3-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The European Union has set a 10 % target for the share of renewable energy in the transportation sector for 2020. To reach this target, second generation biofuels from, for example, forest residues are expected to replace around 3 % of the transport fossil fuel consumption. However, forest residues could also be utilised in the heat and electricity sectors where large amounts of fossil fuels can be replaced, thus reducing global fossil CO2 emissions. This study investigates the use of forest residues for second generation biofuel (ethanol or methanol) or combined heat and power (CHP) production at the European level, with focus on the influence of different economic policy instruments, such as carbon cost or biofuel policy support. A techno-economic, geographically explicit optimisation model is used. The model determines the optimal locations of bioenergy conversion plants by minimising the cost of the entire supply chain. The results show that in order to reach a 3 % second generation biofuel share, a biofuel support comparable to today’s tax exemptions would be needed. With a carbon cost applied, most available forest residues would be allocated to CHP production, with a substantial resulting CO2 emission reduction potential. The major potential for woody biomass and biofuel production is found in the region around the Baltic Sea, with Italy as one of the main biofuel importers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013. Vol. 3, no 1, 3-16 p.
Keyword [en]
Bioenergy, Second generation biofuels, Energy system optimisation, Energy policy, CO2 emissions
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74575DOI: 10.1007/s13399-012-0054-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-74575DiVA: diva2:488679
Note

On the day of the defence day the titel of the publication was Second generation biofuel potential in Europe.

Available from: 2012-02-02 Created: 2012-02-02 Last updated: 2017-02-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. System studies of forest-based biomass gasification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System studies of forest-based biomass gasification
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bioenergy will play an important role in reaching the EU targets for renewable energy. Sweden, with abundant forest resources and a well-established forest industry, has a key position regarding modern biomass use. Biomass gasification (BMG) offers several advantages compared to biomass combustion-based processes, the most prominent being the possibility for downstream conversion to motor fuels (biofuels), and the potential for higher electrical efficiency if used for electricity generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC). BMG-based processes in general have a considerable surplus of heat, which facilitates integration with district heating or industrial processes.

In this thesis integration of large-scale BMG, for biofuel or electricity production, with other parts of the energy system is analysed. Focus is on forest-based biomass, with the analysis including techno-economic aspects as well as considerations regarding effects on global fossil CO2 emissions. The analysis has been done using two approaches – bottom-up with detailed case studies of BMG integrated with local systems, and top-down with BMG studied on a European scale.

The results show that BMG-based biofuel or electricity production can constitute economically interesting alternatives for integration with district heating or pulp and paper production. However, due to uncertainties concerning future energy market conditions and due to the large capital commitment of investment in BMG technology, forceful economic support policies will be needed if BMG is a desired route for the future energy system, unless oil and electricity prices are high enough to provide sufficient incentives for BMG-based biofuel or electricity production. While BMG-based biofuel production could make integration with either district heating or pulp and paper production economically attractive, BIGCC shows considerably more promise if integrated with pulp and paper production than with district heating.

Bioenergy use is often considered CO2-neutral, because uptake in growing plants is assumed to fully balance the CO2 released when the biomass is combusted. As one of the alternatives in this thesis, biomass is viewed as limited. This means that increased use of bioenergy in one part of the energy system limits the amount of biomass available for other applications, thus increasing the CO2 emissions for those applications. The results show that when such marginal effects of increased biomass use are acknowledged, the CO2 mitigation potential for BMG-based biofuel production becomes highly uncertain. In fact, most of the BMG-based biofuel cases studied in this thesis would lead to an increase rather than the desired decrease of global CO2 emissions, when considering biomass as limited.

Abstract [sv]

Bioenergi spelar en viktig roll för att nå EU:s mål för förnybar energi. Sverige har med sina goda skogstillgångar och sin väletablerade skogsindustri en nyckelposition vad gäller modern bioenergianvändning. Förgasning av biomassa har flera fördelar jämfört med förbränningsbaserade processer - i synnerhet möjligheten att konvertera lågvärdiga råvaror till exempelvis fordonsdrivmedel. Används gasen istället för elproduktion kan en högre verkningsgrad nås om gasen används i en kombicykel, jämfört med i en konventionell ångturbincykel. De förgasningsbaserade processerna har i allmänhet ett betydande överskott av värme, vilket möjliggör integrering med fjärrvärmesystem eller industriella processer.

I denna avhandling analyseras integrering av storskalig biomassaförgasning för drivmedelseller elproduktion, med andra delar av energisystemet. Skogsbaserad biomassa är i fokus och analysen behandlar såväl teknoekonomiska aspekter, som effekter på globala fossila CO2-utsläpp. Forskningen har gjorts på två olika systemnivåer - dels i form av detaljerade fallstudier av biomassaförgasning integrerat med lokala svenska system, dels i form av systemstudier på europeisk nivå.

Resultaten visar att förgasningsbaserad biodrivmedels- eller elproduktion kan komma att utgöra ekonomiskt intressanta alternativ för integrering med fjärrvärme eller massa- och papperstillverkning. På grund av osäkerheter i fråga om framtida energimarknadsförhållanden och på grund av de höga kapitalkostnaderna som investering i förgasningsanläggningar innebär, kommer kraftfulla ekonomiska styrmedel krävas om biomassaförgasning är en önskad utvecklingsväg för framtidens energisystem, såvida inte olje- och elpriserna är höga nog att i sig skapa tillräckliga incitament. Medan förgasningsbaserad drivmedelsproduktion kan vara ekonomiskt attraktivt att integrera med såväl fjärrvärme som med massa- och papperstillverkning, framstår förgasningsbaserad elproduktion som betydligt mer lovande vid integrering med massa- och papperstillverkning.

Användning av bioenergi anses ofta vara CO2-neutralt, eftersom upptaget av CO2 i växande biomassa antas balansera den CO2 som frigörs när biomassan förbränns. Som ett av alternativen i denna avhandling ses biomassa som begränsad, vilket innebär att ökad användning av bioenergi i en del av energisystemet begränsar den tillgängliga mängden biomassa för andra användare, vilket leder till ökade CO2-utsläpp för dessa. Resultaten visar att när hänsyn tas till denna typ av marginella effekter av ökad biomassaanvändning, blir potentialen för minskade globala CO2-utsläpp med hjälp av förgasningsbaserade tillämpningar mycket osäker. I själva verket skulle de flesta av de förgasningsbaserade drivmedel som studerats i denna avhandling leda till en utsläppsökning, snarare än den önskade minskningen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 79 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1429
Keyword
Biomass gasification, second-generation biofuels, global CO2 emissions, energy system optimisation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74576 (URN)978-91-7519-955-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-03-02, sal ACAS, hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-02 Created: 2012-02-02 Last updated: 2012-08-20Bibliographically approved

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