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Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3120-1361
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2012 (English)In: 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Online Proceedings including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition (2012), AIAA , 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a framework for development and validation of multipurpose simulation models. The presented methodology enables reuse of models in different applications with different purposes. The scope is simulation models representing physical environment, physical aircraft systems or subsystems, avionics equipment, and electronic hardware. The methodology has been developed by a small interdisciplinary team, with experience from Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of vehicle systems as well as development of simulators for verification and training. Special care has been taken to ensure usability of the workflow and method descriptions, mainly by means of 1) a user friendly format, easy to overview and update, 2) keeping the amount of text down, and 3) providing relevant examples, templates, and checklists. A simulation model of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of a military fighter aircraft, the Saab Gripen, is used as an example to guide the reader through the workflow of developing and validating multipurpose simulation models. The methods described in the paper can be used in both military and civil applications, and are not limited to the aircraft industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AIAA , 2012.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74716DOI: 10.2514/6.2012-877OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-74716DiVA: diva2:490592
Conference
50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, 9–12 January, 2012, Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center, 9-12 January, Nashville, Tennessee
Available from: 2012-02-06 Created: 2012-02-06 Last updated: 2016-04-25
In thesis
1. Variability and Customization of Simulator Products: A Product Line Approach in Model Based Systems Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variability and Customization of Simulator Products: A Product Line Approach in Model Based Systems Engineering
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

AIRCRAFT DEVELOPERS, like other organizations within development and manufacturing, are experiencing increasing complexity in their products and growing competition in the global market. Products are built from increasingly advanced technologies and their mechanical, electronic, and software parts grow in number and become more interconnected. Different approaches are used to manage information and knowledge of products in various stages of their lifecycle.

"Reuse" and "Model Based Development" are two prominent trends for improving industrial development efficiency. The product line approach is used to reduce the time to create product variants by reusing components. The model based approach provides means to capture knowledge about a system in the early lifecycle stages for usage throughout its entire lifetime. It also enables structured data  management as a basis for analysis, automation, and team collaboration for efficient management of large systems and families of products.

This work is focused on the combination of methods and techniques within;

  • modeling and simulation-based development, and
  • (re)use of simulation models through the product line concept.

With increasing computational performance and more efficient techniques/tools for building simulation models, the number of models increases, and their usage ranges from concept evaluation to end-user training. The activities related to model verification and validation contribute to a large part of the overall cost for development and maintenance of simulation models. The studied methodology aims to reduce the number of similar models created by different teams during design, testing, and end-user support of industrial products.

Results of the work include evaluation of a configurator to customize and integrate simulation models for different types of aircraft simulators that are part of a simulator product family. Furthermore, contribution comprises results where constraints in the primary product family (aircraft) govern the configuration space of the secondary product family (simulators). Evaluation of the proposed methodology was carried out in cooperation with the simulator department for the 39 Gripen fighter aircraft at Saab Aeronautics.

Abstract [sv]

FLYGPLANSTILLVERKARE LIKSOM andra industrier inom utveckling och tillverkning, hanterar ökande komplexitet i sina produkter och upplever en större konkurrens på den globala marknaden. Produkter byggs från allt mer avancerad teknologi. Ingående delar av mekanik, elektronik och mjukvara växer i antal och blir allt mer integrerade. Olika metoder används för att hantera information och kunskap om produkter i olika steg av dess livscykel.

”Återanvändning” och ”Modellbaserad utveckling” är två tydliga trender för att öka effektiviteten inom industriell utveckling. Produktfamiljer används för att minska ledtider när man skapar varianter av produkter genom att återanvända färdiga komponenter. Modellbaserade metoder ger möjlighet att tidigt i livscykeln samla kunskap om ett system för att användas under hela systemets livstid. De ger också strukturerad hantering av data som grund för analys, automatisering och samarbete mellan utvecklingsteam, vilket är en förutsättning för effektiv hantering av komplexa system och produkter.

Detta arbete är fokuserat på en kombination av metoder och tekniker för;

  • utveckling som baseras på modellering och simulering, och
  • (åter)användning av simuleringsmodeller.

Med ökande beräkningsprestanda och effektivare metoder/verktyg för att bygga simuleringsmodeller så ökar antalet modeller och deras användning spänner allt från konceptvärderingen till utbildning av slutanvändare. Arbetet med verifiering och validering av simuleringsmodeller utgör en stor del av deras totala utvecklings- och underhållskostnader. De studerade metoderna syftar till att minska antalet liknande modeller som hanteras av olika team för olika syften, som till exempel; utveckling, verifiering och som stöd för slutanvändare.

Resultat av arbete inkluderar utvärdering av en konfigurator för att välja, integrera och anpassa simuleringsmodeller för olika typer av flygplanssimulatorer i en simulatorproduktfamilj. Dessutom bidrar arbetet med en metodik där begränsningarna i den primära produktfamiljen (flygplan) begränsar konfigurationsutrymmet för den sekundära produktfamiljen (simulatorer). Utvärdering av den föreslagna metoden har genomförts i samarbete med simulatoravdelning för flygplan 39 Gripen på Saab Aeronautics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 83 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1427
National Category
Computer and Information Science Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73572 (URN)978-91-7519-963-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-03-08, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-01-09 Last updated: 2012-02-16Bibliographically approved
2. Methods for Early Model Validation: Applied on Simulation Models of Aircraft Vehicle Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for Early Model Validation: Applied on Simulation Models of Aircraft Vehicle Systems
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Simulation  models of physical systems, with or without control software, are widely used in the aeronautic industry in applications ranging from system development to verification and end-user training. With the main drivers of reducing the cost of physical testing and in general enhancing the ability to take early model-based design decisions, there is an ongoing trend of further increasing the portion of modeling and simulation.

The work presented in this thesis is focused on development of methodology for model validation, which is a key enabler for successfully reducing the amount of physical testing without compromising safety. Reducing the amount of physical testing is especially interesting in the aeronautic industry, where each physical test commonly represents a significant cost. Besides the cost aspect, it may also be difficult or hazardous to carry out physical testing. Specific to the aeronautic industry are also the relatively long development cycles, implying long periods of uncertainty during product development. In both industry and academia a common viewpoint is that verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification of simulation models are critical activities for a successful deployment of model-based systems engineering. However, quantification of simulation results uncertainty commonly requires a large amount of certain information, and for industrial applications available methods often seem too detailed or tedious to even try. This in total constitutes more than sufficient reason to invest in research on methodology for model validation, with special focus on simplified methods for use in early development phases when system measurement data are scarce.

Results from the work include a method supporting early model validation. When sufficient system level measurement data for validation purposes is unavailable, this method provides a means to use knowledge of component level uncertainty for assessment of model top level uncertainty. Also, the common situation of lacking data for characterization of parameter uncertainties is to some degree mitigated. A novel concept has been developed for integrating uncertainty information obtained from component level validation directly into components, enabling assessment of model level uncertainty. In this way, the level of abstraction is raised from uncertainty of component input parameters to uncertainty of component output  characteristics. The method is integrated in a Modelica component library for modeling and simulation of aircraft vehicle systems, and is evaluated in both deterministic and probabilistic frameworks using an industrial application example. Results also include an industrial applicable process for model development, validation, and export, and the concept of virtual testing and virtual certification is discussed.

Abstract [sv]

Simmuleringsmodeller av fysikaliska system, med eller utan reglerande mjukvara, har sedan lång tid tillbaka ett brett användningsområde inom flygindustrin. Tillämpningar finns inom allt från systemutveckling till produktverifiering och träning. Med de huvudsakliga drivkrafterna att reducera mängden fysisk provning samt att öka förutsättningarna till att fatta välgrundade modellbaserade designbeslut pågår en trend att ytterligare öka andelen modellering och simulering.

Arbetet som presenteras i denna avhandling är fokuserat på utveckling av metodik för validering av simuleringsmodeller, vilket anses vara ett kritiskt område för att framgångsrikt minska mängden fysisk provning utan att äventyra säkerheten. Utveckling av metoder för att på ett säkert sätt minska mängden fysisk provning är speciellt intressant inom flygindustrin där varje fysiskt prov vanligen utgör en betydande kostnad. Utöver de stora kostnaderna kan det även vara svårt eller riskfyllt att genomföra fysisk provning. Specifikt är även de långa utvecklingscyklerna som innebär att man har långa perioder av osäkerhet under produktutvecklingen. Inom såväl industri som akademi ses verifiering, validering och osäkerhetsanalys av simuleringsmodeller som kritiska aktiviteter för en framgångsrik tillämpning av modellbaserad systemutveckling. Kvantifiering av osäkerheterna i ett simuleringsresultat kräver dock vanligen en betydande mängd säker information, och för industriella tillämpningar framstår tillgängliga metoder ofta som alltför detaljerade eller arbetskrävande. Totalt sett ger detta särskild anledning till forskning inom metodik för modellvalidering, med speciellt fokus på förenklade metoder för användning i tidiga utvecklingsfaser då tillgången på mätdata är knapp.

Resultatet från arbetet inkluderar en metod som stöttar tidig modellvalidering. Metoden är avsedd att tillämpas vid brist på mätdata från aktuellt system, och möjliggör utnyttjande av osäkerhetsinformation från komponentnivå för bedömning av osäkerhet på modellnivå. Avsaknad av data för karaktärisering av parameterosäkerheter är även ett vanligt förekommande problem som till viss mån mildras genom användning av metoden. Ett koncept har utvecklats för att integrera osäkerhetsinformation hämtad från komponentvalidering direkt i en modells komponenter, vilket möjliggör en förenklad osäkerhetsanalys på modellnivå. Abstraktionsnivån vid osäkerhetsanalysen höjs på så sätt från parameternivå till komponentnivå. Metoden är implementerad i ett Modelica-baserat komponentbibliotek för modellering och simulering av grundflygplansystem, och har utvärderats i en industriell tillämpning i kombination med både deterministiska och probabilistiska tekniker. Resultatet från arbetet inkluderar även en industriellt tillämplig process för utveckling, validering och export av simuleringsmodeller, och begreppen virtuell provning och virtuell certifiering diskuteras.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. 61 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1591
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91277 (URN)978-91-7519-627-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-05-03, Sal A35, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 11:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-04-18 Created: 2013-04-18 Last updated: 2015-01-15Bibliographically approved
3. On Credibility Assessment in Aircraft System Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Credibility Assessment in Aircraft System Simulation
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aeronautical industry is becoming increasingly reliant on Modeling and Simulation (M&S) for use throughout all system development phases, for system verification, and end-user training. To justify and to utilize the full potential of today’s model-based approach, the development of efficient and industrially applicable methods for credibility assessment of M&S efforts is a key challenge.

This work addresses methods facilitating credibility assessment of simulation models and simulator applications used in aircraft system development. For models of individual aircraft subsystems, an uncertainty aggregation method is proposed that facilitates early model validation through approximate uncertainty quantification. The central idea is to integrate information obtained during component level validation directly into the component equations, and to utilize this information in model level uncertainty quantification.

In addition to methods intended for models of individual subsystems, this work also proposes a method and an associated tool for credibility assessment of large-scale simulator applications. As a complement to traditional document-centric approaches, static and dynamic credibility information is here presented to end-users directly during simulation. This implies a support for detecting test plan deficiencies, or that a simulator configuration is not a suitable platform for the execution of a particular test. The credibility assessment tool has been implemented and evaluated in two large-scale system simulators for the Saab Gripen fighter aircraft. The work presented herein also includes an industrially applicable workflow for development, validation, and export of simulation models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 79 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1758
National Category
Aerospace Engineering Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127380 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-127380 (DOI)978-91-7685-780-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-27, C3, C-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2016-04-25Bibliographically approved

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Carlsson, MagnusAndersson, HenricGavel, HampusÖlvander, Johan

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