Ion mass spectroscopy investigations during high power pulsed 1 magnetron sputtering and DCMS of Carbon in an Ar and Ar/N2 discharge
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
The composition of carbon discharges were investigated during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) using mass spectroscopy measurements in an industrial deposition system. During the sputter process 16 the ion flux was analyzed with regards to composition and energy. The ion energy distribution was measured in time-averaged and time-resolved mode for Ar+, C+, N2+, N+, and CxNy+ ions. While the N2-to-Ar flow ratio (ƒN2 / Ar) was varied, a constant deposition pressure and comparable energy per pulses were kept.
The results show that an increase of the N2-to-Ar flow ratio (keeping the pulse width, pulse frequency and pulse energies constant) an significant increase in C+, N+- and CN+-energy, while other ion flux energies did not considerably vary with the changes in working gas chemistry. A comparison with DCMS measurements showed the expected increase in ion energies as well as a significant increase of C+ ions in the HiPIMS plasma. The time evolution of the plasma species was analyzed in detail and showed the sequential arrival of working gas ions, ions ejected from the target and later during the pulse on time molecular ions such as CN+ as well as C2N+. Mass spectroscopic results in combination with the evaluation 1 of target current and target voltage waveforms as well as TEM (transmission electron microscopy) images and SAED (selected area electron diffraction patterns) for films deposited in DCMS and HiPIMS mode help to explain the formation of fullerene-like structured CNx thin films.
HiPIMS, CNx, mass spectroscopy, carbon, sputtering, high power impulse magnetron 8 sputtering, HPPMS, high power pulse magnetron sputtering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74746OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-74746DiVA: diva2:491755