Low-Energy Standby-Sparing for Hard Real-Time Systems
2012 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, ISSN 0278-0070, Vol. 31, no 3, 329-342 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Time-redundancy techniques are commonly used in real-time systems to achieve fault tolerance without incurring high energy overhead. However, reliability requirements of hard real-time systems that are used in safety-critical applications are so stringent that time-redundancy techniques are sometimes unable to achieve them. Standby sparing as a hardware-redundancy technique can be used to meet high reliability requirements of safety-critical applications. However, conventional standby-sparing techniques are not suitable for low-energy hard real-time systems as they either impose considerable energy overheads or are not proper for hard timing constraints. In this paper we provide a technique to use standby sparing for hard real-time systems with limited energy budgets. The principal contribution of this paper is an online energy-management technique which is specifically developed for standby-sparing systems that are used in hard real-time applications. This technique operates at runtime and exploits dynamic slacks to reduce the energy consumption while guaranteeing hard deadlines. We compared the low-energy standby-sparing (LESS) system with a low-energy time-redundancy system (from a previous work). The results show that for relaxed time constraints, the LESS system is more reliable and provides about 26% energy saving as compared to the time-redundancy system. For tight deadlines when the time-redundancy system is not sufficiently reliable (for safety-critical application), the LESS system preserves its reliability but with about 49% more energy consumption.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2012. Vol. 31, no 3, 329-342 p.
Fault tolerance, low-power design, real-time and embedded systems
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75893DOI: 10.1109/TCAD.2011.2173488ISI: 000300513500001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-75893DiVA: diva2:510574
Funding Agencies|Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, U.K.|EP/E035965/1|Research Vice-Presidency of the Sharif University of Technology||2012-03-162012-03-162012-03-30