Provitamin A carotenoids are independently associated with matrix metalloproteinase-9 in plasma samples from a general population
2012 (English)In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 272, no 4, 371-384 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background and aim: Carotenoids in plasma are inversely associated with cardiovascular risk. Low levels can be explained by low dietary intake but also by a number of other factors including inflammatory activity. Given that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has an important role in inflammation and cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized that circulating MMP-9 levels would be inversely related to total or single carotenoids in a general population cohort. Methods: A well-characterized population-based cohort of 285 Swedish men and women (45-69 years) was used for the present study. The intake of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Levels of MMP-9, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and six major carotenoids [β-cryptoxanthine, α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein (+ zeaxanthin) and lycopene] were determined in plasma. Results: Lower plasma levels of total and single carotenoids were associated with lower dietary intake of carotenoids, older age, male sex, lower physical activity, higher alcohol consumption, higher body mass index (BMI), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, lower levels of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol and higher levels of CRP, IL-6 and MMP-9. After multivariate adjustments, plasma levels of total carotenoids and provitamin A carotenoids (β-cryptoxanthine, α-carotene and β-carotene) remained independently associated with sex, dietary intake of carotenoids, BMI, HDL cholesterol and MMP-9, while associations with CRP and IL-6 were not maintained. Neither dietary intake of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables, nor vitamin supplement use was associated with MMP-9, CRP or IL-6 levels. Conclusion: Plasma carotenoids were associated with a variety of factors including age, sex, dietary intake and metabolic variables. A new finding was the independent relationship in plasma between low provitamin A carotenoids and high MMP-9, suggesting a link between these carotenoids, matrix turnover and arterial remodelling. © 2012 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Vol. 272, no 4, 371-384 p.
CMOS, photon counting, spectral computed tomography, x-ray detection
National CategoryMedical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75982DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2012.2534x.xISI: 000308877500005PubMedID: 22372952OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-75982DiVA: diva2:511402
funding agencies|Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation||Swedish Research Council||Linkoping University||2012-03-212012-03-212012-10-19