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Optimal Toll Locations and Levels in Congestion Pricing Schemes: a Case Study of Stockholm
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1367-6793
Centre for Traffic Research, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6405-5914
2014 (English)In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 37, no 4, 333-353 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As congestion pricing has moved from theoretical ideas in the literature to real world implementations, the need for decision support when designing the pricing schemes has become evident. This paper deals with the problem of finding optimal toll levels and locations in a road traffic network, and presents a case study of Stockholm. The optimization problem of finding optimal toll levels, given a predetermined cordon, and the problem of finding both optimal toll locations and levels are presented, and previously developed heuristics are used for solving these problems. For the Stockholm case study, the possible welfare gains of optimizing the toll levels in the current cordon, and optimizing both the toll locations and their corresponding toll levels are evaluated. It is shownthat by tuning the toll levels in the current congestion pricing cordon used in Stockholm, the welfare gain can be significantly increased, and furthermore improved by allowing a toll on the bypass highway “Essingeleden”. It is also shown that by optimizing both the toll locations and levels, a congestion pricing scheme with welfare gain close to what can be achieved by marginal social cost pricing, can be designed with tolls being located on only a forth of the tollable links.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2014. Vol. 37, no 4, 333-353 p.
Keyword [en]
congestion pricing; road tolls; bilevel optimisation; user equilibrium; network design; Stockholm
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76640DOI: 10.1080/03081060.2014.897129ISI: 000334158100002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-76640DiVA: diva2:515570
Note

On the day of the defence date of the Thesis the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-04-13 Created: 2012-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Optimization Approaches for Design of Congestion Pricing Schemes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization Approaches for Design of Congestion Pricing Schemes
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in congestion pricing as a tool for solving traffic congestion problems in urban areas. However, the transportation system is complex and to design a congestion pricing scheme, i.e. to decide where and how much to charge the road users, is not trivial. This thesis considers congestion pricing schemes based on road tolls, and the efficiency of a pricing scheme is evaluated by a social welfare measure. To assist in the process of designing congestion pricing schemes, the toll design problem (TDP) is formulated as an optimization problem with the objective function describing the change in social welfare. In the TDP, the road users are assumed to be distributed in the traffic network according to a Wardrop equilibrium. The TDP is a non-convex optimization problem, and its objective function is non-smooth. Thus, the TDP is considered as a hard optimization problem to solve.

This thesis aims to develop methods capable of optimizing both toll locations and their corresponding toll levels for real world traffic networks; methods which can be used in a decision support framework when designing new congestion pricing schemes or tuning already implemented ones. Also, this thesis addresses the global optimality of the TDP. '

In this thesis, a smoothening technique is applied which approximates the discrete toll location variables by continuous functions (Paper I). This allows for simultaneous optimization of both toll locations and their corresponding toll levels, using a sensitivity analysis based ascent algorithm. The smoothening technique is applied in a Stockholm case study (Paper II), which shows the potential of using optimization when designing congestion pricing schemes.

Global optimality of the TDP is addressed by piecewise linear approximations of the non-linear functions in the TDP (Papers III and IV), resulting in a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The MILP can be solved to global optimality by branch and bound/cut methods which are implemented in commercially available software.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 48 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1443
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76287 (URN)978-91-7519-903-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-05-09, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-04-13 Created: 2012-04-02 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved

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Ekström, JoakimRydergren, Clas

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