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Violence through the life cycle: A public health problem
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Violence has probably always been part of the human experience. Its impact can be seen, in various forms, in all parts of the world. In 1996, WHO:s Forty-Ninth World Health Assembly adopted a resolution , declaring violence a major and growing public health problem around the world. Public health work centers around health promotion and disease prevention activities in the population and public health is an expression of the health status of the population taking into account both the level and the distribution of health. Exposure to violence can have many aspects, differing throughout the life course — deprivation of autonomy, financial exploitation, psychological and physical neglect or abuse — but all types share common characteristics: the use of destructive force to control others by depriving them of safety, freedom, health and, in too many instances, life; the epidemic proportions of the problem, particularly among vulnerable groups; a devastating impact on individuals, families, neighborhoods, communities, and society.

Methods: Three different data sources were used in the four articles, three cross-sectional studies (“Life and Health in Norrland” and “Health on Equal Terms 2004 and 2006”) and one longitudinal (“Level-of-Living Survey”).

Results: We present an important picture of the strong association between exposure to violence and ill health through the life cycle. A population-based study showed an increased risk of poorer physical and psychological health among boys and girls aged 0-18, as reported by their mothers exposed to violence. Further, a strong association between those exposed to violence and physical and mental ill health was demonstrated in young adults aged 18-25, also after adjusting for possible confounders, specifically for women. Even in an elder group aged 65-84, representative results showed an extensive negative health outcome panorama caused by fear of crime and exposure to abuse both in elderly men and women. Lastly, in trying to provide additional empirical support for the association between exposure to violence and ill health the prospective study demonstrated that violence exposure in adolescence and young adulthood presented a negative association to severe illness burden in adulthood for women but not men.

Conclusion: Exposure to violence among both men and women is an important risk factor for ill health and should receive greater attention in public health work. A strong association between violence and various health outcomes was demonstrated in different time periods through the life cycle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. , 84 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1307
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77044ISBN: 978-91-7519-905-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-77044DiVA: diva2:524716
Public defence
2012-06-07, Aulan, Hälsans hus, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-05-03 Created: 2012-05-03 Last updated: 2012-05-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Physical and psychological symptoms and learning difficulties in children of women exposed and non-exposed to violence: a population-based study.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical and psychological symptoms and learning difficulties in children of women exposed and non-exposed to violence: a population-based study.
Show others...
2011 (English)In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 56, no 1, 89-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the association between violence against mothers and the health of their children as reported by the mothers. METHODS: The data originate from a multistage sampling health-questionnaire survey, distributed to a representative sample of women in Sweden. The health of 283 children (aged 0-18 years), as reported by women who had been exposed to violence at home or outside home during the past 12 months, was compared with that of 4,664 children of non-exposed mothers. RESULTS: Odds ratios regarding most registered physical symptoms showed that children of violence-exposed mothers had a significant higher risk of ill health than children of non-exposed mothers. Regarding psychological symptoms and learning difficulties, the odds were raised for girls for most symptoms, but not for boys. A twofold increase in health-care utilisation and an overall general increase in the risk of pharmaceutical consumption were shown for both girls and boys of exposed mothers. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study shows an increased risk of poorer health amongst boys and girls aged 0-18 years, as reported by mothers exposed to violence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-62254 (URN)10.1007/s00038-010-0165-0 (DOI)000286944400012 ()20617453 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-11-24 Created: 2010-11-24 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Violence Against Young Men and Women: A Vital Health Issue
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Violence Against Young Men and Women: A Vital Health Issue
2009 (English)In: The Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 2, 1-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Violence is regarded as a major health issue in an increasing amount of literature and is known as an important factor in women's ill health. Little however is known about violence against young men and women and its impact on their health. The principal aim of this study was to analyze health outcomes and health care utilization as reported among men and women aged 18-25 exposed and not exposed to physical and/or emotional violence.

Study design: A cross-sectional national health survey in Sweden.

Methods: Postal questionnaires were sent to nearly 3,000 men and women. Three questions were used to ask about violence. Sociodemographic characteristics for those exposed to violence during the past 12 months were analyzed and compared to those not exposed. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for health outcomes and medical care utilization.

Results: Increased odds ratios were found for most health outcomes, and health care utilization for those exposed to violence compared to non-exposed. After adjusting for socioeconomic factors, smoking, and use of alcohol and cannabis, most variables were principally unchanged for women but considerably lower for men. Socioeconomic factors, smoking, and the use of drugs were all correlated to victimization.

Conclusions: A strong association between those exposed to violence and physical and mental ill health was demonstrated also after adjusting for possible confounders, specifically for women. It is time to include questions about violence in public health questionnaires aimed at young people, but also to start asking about it more frequently in health care settings.

Keyword
Young men, young women, health status, medical service, public health survey, violence
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20894 (URN)10.2174/1874944500902010001 (DOI)
Note
Original Publication: Niclas Olofsson, Kent Lindqvist, Katja Gillander Gadin and Ingela Danielsson, Violence Against Young Men and Women: A Vital Health Issue, 2009, The Open Public Health Journal, (2), 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874944500902010001Available from: 2009-09-24 Created: 2009-09-24 Last updated: 2012-05-03Bibliographically approved
3. Fear of crime and psychological and physical abuse associated with ill health in a Swedish population aged 65-84 years
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fear of crime and psychological and physical abuse associated with ill health in a Swedish population aged 65-84 years
2012 (English)In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 126, no 4, 358-364 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To assess the association between fear of crime and/or psychological and/or physical abuse in relation to self-reported physical and psychological health, using a large representative sample of elderly women and men in Sweden. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanStudy design: Cross-sectional national survey. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Data were taken from a nationwide representative public health survey (2006). Men and women between the ages of 65 and 84 years were selected for the present analyses (4386 men and 4974 women). The response rate for this age group was 59% for men and 70% for women. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Psychological and physical abuse against elderly women and men led to higher odds ratios for negative health outcomes, independently of socio-economic status. Strong correlation was found between psychological abuse and negative health outcomes in both men and women, while the correlation was less strong for physical abuse, especially among women. The men had high odds ratios for suicidal thoughts and even for attempted suicide in connection with physical and psychological abuse and fear of crime. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The study provides representative results addressing an extensive negative health outcome panorama caused by fear of crime and exposure to abuse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WB Saunders, 2012
Keyword
Elderly, Abuse, Ill health, Men, Women, Population study
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76948 (URN)10.1016/j.puhe.2012.01.015 (DOI)000302121100016 ()
Available from: 2012-05-02 Created: 2012-04-27 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. Long-term health consequences of violence exposure in adolescence: A 26–year prospective study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term health consequences of violence exposure in adolescence: A 26–year prospective study
2012 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, no 411Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Violence victimization represents a serious risk factor for health related symptoms, for both men and women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of violence exposure in late adolescence and early adulthood on adult health, physical as well as mental, using a long-term prospective population-based study, with a follow up of 9, 19, and 26 years.

Methods: The primary data source is a longitudinal panel from one of the longest running social science surveys in the world, the Swedish Level-of-Living surveys (LNU). We analyzed three cohorts, individuals aged 15-19 in 1974 and 1981, and individuals aged 18-19 in 1991 which were followed up 2000. Structured interviews on childhood, family relationships, life-events, living conditions, health history and status, working conditions, behavioral, psychosocial, and demographic variables were repeatedly used in all cohorts.

Results: Multivariate models of violence exposures in adolescence in the 1974-91 cohorts as predictors of adult health in 2000 are reported for both men and women. Women exposed to violence had raised odds ratios for ill health, measured as heavy illness burden, and poor self rated health, after controlling for possible confounders. No such associations were found for men.

Conclusions: This study’s findings provide additional empirical support for the importance of policies and practices to identify and prevent violence exposure in adolescence and young adulthood and to supply treatments for adolescence exposed to violence and above all the young women.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77043 (URN)10.1186/1471-2458-12-411 (DOI)000307900500001 ()
Available from: 2012-05-03 Created: 2012-05-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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