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HiPIMS-based Novel Deposition Processes for Thin Films
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9126-6004
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this research, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) based new deposition processes are introduced to address; the issue of low degree of ionization of C in magnetron sputtering discharges, and the difficulty encountered in thin film deposition on complex-shaped surfaces. The issue of low degree of C ionization is addressed by introducing a new strategy which is based on promoting the electron impact ionization ofC by increasing the electron temperature in the plasma discharge using Ne, instead of conventionally used Ar. The Ne-based HiPIMS process provides highly ionized C fluxes which are essential for the synthesis of high-density and sp3 rich amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and tetrahedral a-C (ta-C). The feasibility of coating complex-shaped surfaces is demonstrated by using the dual-magnetron approach in an open-field (magnetic field of the magnetrons) configuration and performing sideways deposition of Ti films. The HiPIMS-based open-field configuration process enhances the sideways transport of the sputtered flux — an effect which is observed in the case of HiPIMS.

The characterization of the Ne-HiPIMS discharge using a Langmuir probe and mass spectrometry shows that it provides an increase in the electron temperature resulting in an order of magnitude decrease in the mean ionization length of the sputtered C as compared to the conventional Ar-HiPIMS discharge. The C1+ ion energy distribution functions exhibit the presence of an energetic C1+ ion population and a substantial increase in the total C1+ ion flux. The higher C1+ ion flux facilitates the growth of sp3 rich carbon films with mass densities, measured by x-ray reflectometry, reaching as high as approx. 2.8 gcm-3.

The dual-magnetron open-field configuration process is operated in DCMS as well as in HiPIMS modes. The plasma characterization, performed by Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy, shows that the plasma density in the Ti-HiPIMS discharge is higher than that of the Ti-DCMS discharge. This results in the higher ionized fraction of the sputtered Ti in the case of HiPIMS. The film uniformity and the deposition rate of the film growth, obtained by employing scanning electron microscopy, demonstrate that the sideways deposition approach can be used for depositing thin films on complex-shaped surfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. , 49 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1537
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78728Local ID: LIU-TEK-LIC-2012:22ISBN: 978-91-7519-870-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-78728DiVA: diva2:535282
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-06-19 Created: 2012-06-19 Last updated: 2013-10-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A strategy for increased carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A strategy for increased carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges
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2012 (English)In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 23, 1-4 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A strategy that facilitates a substantial increase of carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges is presented in this work. The strategy is based on increasing the electron temperature in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge by using Ne as the sputtering gas. This allows for the generation of an energetic C+ ion population and a substantial increase in the C+ ion flux as compared to a conventional Ar-HiPIMS process. A direct consequence of the ionization enhancement is demonstrated by an increase in the mass density of the grown films up to 2.8 g/cm3; the density values achieved are substantially higher than those obtained from conventional magnetron sputtering methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74315 (URN)10.1016/j.diamond.2011.12.043 (DOI)000302887600001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2008-3222 623-2009-7348
Available from: 2012-01-24 Created: 2012-01-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Dual-magnetron open field sputtering system for sideways deposition of thin films
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual-magnetron open field sputtering system for sideways deposition of thin films
2010 (English)In: SURFACE and COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 204, no 14, 2165-2169 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A dual-magnetron system for deposition inside tubular substrates has been developed. The two magnetrons are facing each other and have opposing magnetic fields forcing electrons and thereby also ionized material to be transported radially towards the substrate. The depositions were made employing direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). To optimize the deposition rate, the system was characterized at different separation distances between the magnetrons under the same sputtering conditions. The deposition rate is found to increase with increasing separation distance independent of discharge technique. The emission spectrum from the HiPIMS plasma shows a highly ionized fraction of the sputtered material. The electron densities of the order of 10(16) m(-3) and 10(18) m(-3) have been determined in the DCMS and the HiPIMS plasma discharges respectively. The results demonstrate a successful implementation of the concept of sideways deposition of thin films providing a solution for coating complex shaped surfaces.

Keyword
Dual-magnetron, Open field configuration, Sideways deposition, HiPIMS, HPPMS, DCMS
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54766 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2009.11.044 (DOI)000275920900009 ()
Available from: 2010-04-09 Created: 2010-04-09 Last updated: 2015-05-28

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Aijaz, Asim

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