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Reconstructions of the historical mercury emissions from Stockholm based on the urban metabolism and laminated sediment cores
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The 20th century history of mercury emissions from Stockholm has been reconstructed using a model based on the urban metabolism. The deposition of mercury in scdiments around the city was calculated using laminated sediment cores. The sediment data were used to make an independent reconstruction that was compared to the results of the model. Both reconstructions make it very clear that there is a long history of mercury pollution in Stockholm

National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79127OAI: diva2:538375
Available from: 2012-06-29 Created: 2012-06-29 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The trace of metals: Use, emissions and sediment load of urban heavy metals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The trace of metals: Use, emissions and sediment load of urban heavy metals
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Urban areas have been considered potential ecological hot spots for metal pollution. This is the result of three trends. First, the 20th century saw a rapid increase in the use of many materials, including metals, in the industrialized world. Second, urbanization has made towns and cities areas nodes of material flows. Third, emissions from production activities have received considerable attention and regulation, but emissions via consumption have largely been ignored, so for several metals they have become more important than emissions from production activities. These emissions largely occur from centres of population. Thus, metal pollutionin urban areas is a subject of increasing importance.

Whereas most studies of environmental pollution have dealt with pollutants in the environment, a new research field has evolved that is devoted to earlier identification of the fluxes that cause pollution. A tool in this work is material flux analysis. This thesis presents an extendedmaterial flux analysis of five heavy metals, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. This approach combines an analysis of the metal fluxes within the urban system, with an investigation of sediments, which aims at identifying the current sediment load of metals, and to reconstruct the historical load by using dated sediment cores.

The results indicate that the use of Cd, Hg and Pb have been reduced during the last three decades. Thus emissions to the aquatic environment have been substantially reduced. However, metal concentrations in sediments from central Stockholm, as well as fluxes of metals to the sediments, arc highly elevated compared to other areas. Budget comparisons indicate that the area investigated in and around Stockholm has changed from a positive balance, indicating a net export of Cd, Hg and Pb to the Baltic in the 1970s, to a negative balance, indicating thatthere are unidentified sources of these metals. For Cu, the budget is approximately balanced, and for Zn the area seems to be an exporter to the Baltic Sea.

It is argued that the unbalanced budgets of Cd, Hg and Pb highlight the importance of integrated approaches, and of including sediment loads in environmental monitoring. The results also stress the need for a better understanding of the urban biogeochemistry of heavy metals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2000. 64 p.
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 221
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35393 (URN)26549 (Local ID)91-7219-880-X (ISBN)26549 (Archive number)26549 (OAI)
Public defence
2000-12-01, Sal Elysion, Hus-T, Universitetsområdet Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved

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Jonsson, Arne
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