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Colorimetric Protein Sensing by Controlled Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Synthetic Receptors
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7001-9415
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Division of Organic Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, BMC, Box 576, Uppsala University, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
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2009 (English)In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, Vol. 5, no 21, 2445-2452 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A strategy for colorimetric sensing of proteins, based on the induced assembly of polypeptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles, is described. Recognition was accomplished using a polypeptide sensor scaffold designed to specifically bind the model analyte, human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII). The extent of particle aggregation, induced by the Zn2+-triggered dimerization and folding of a second polypeptide also present on the surface of the gold nanoparticle, gave a readily detectable colorimetric shift that was dependent on the concentration of the target protein. In the absence of HCAII, particle aggregation resulted in a major redshift of the plasmon peak whereas analyte binding prevented formation of dense aggregates, significantly reducing the magnitude of the redshift. The limit of detection of HCAII was estimated to be around 15 nM. The versatility of the technique was demonstrated using a second model system based on the recognition of a peptide sequence from the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein (TMVP by a recombinant antibody fragment. This strategy is proposed as a generic platform for robust and specific protein analysis that can be further developed for monitoring a wide range of target proteins.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 5, no 21, 2445-2452 p.
Keyword [en]
Not available.
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15122DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900530OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-15122DiVA: diva2:54447
Available from: 2008-10-16 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2015-05-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Polypeptide-Based Nanoscale Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polypeptide-Based Nanoscale Materials
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Self-assembly has emerged as a promising technique for fabrication of novel hybrid materials and nanostructures. The work presented in this thesis has been focused on developing nanoscale materials based on synthetic de novo designed polypeptides. The polypeptides have been utilized for the assembly of gold nanoparticles, fibrous nanostructures, and for sensing applications.

The 42-residue polypeptides are designed to fold into helix-loop-helix motifs and dimerize to form four-helix bundles. Folding is primarily driven by the formation of a hydrophobic core made up by the hydrophobic faces of the amphiphilic helices. The peptides have either a negative or positive net charge at neutral pH, depending on the relative abundance of Glu and Lys. Charge repulsion thus prevents homodimerization at pH 7 while promoting hetero-dimerization through the formation of stabilising salt bridges. A Cys incorporated in position 22, located in the loop region, allowed for directed, thiol-dependent, immobilization on planar gold surfaces and gold nanoparticles. The negatively charged (Glu-rich) peptide formed homodimers and folded in solution at pH < 6 or in the presence of certain metal ions, such as Zn2+. The folding properties of this peptide were retained when immobilized directly on gold, which enabled reversible assembly of gold nanoparticles resulting in aggregates with well-defined interparticle separations. Particle aggregation was found to induce folding of the immobilized peptides but folding could also be utilized to induce aggregation of the particles by exploiting the highly specific interactions involved in both homodimerization and hetero-association. The possibility to control the assembly of polypeptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles was utilized in a colorimetric protein assay. Analyte binding to immobilized ligands prevented the formation of dense particle aggregates when subjecting the particles to conditions normally causing extensive aggregation. Analyte binding could hence easily be distinguished by the naked eye. Moreover, the peptides were utilized to assemble gold nanoparticles on planar gold and silica substrates.

Fibrous nanostructures were realized by linking monomers through a disulphide-bridge. The disulphide-linked peptides were found to spontaneously assemble into long and extremely thin peptide fibres as a result of a propagating association mediated by folding into four-helix bundles.

Abstract [en]

Ingenjörer och vetenskapsmän har ofta inspirerats av naturen i sökandet efter lösningar på tekniska problem. Allt ifrån byggnadskonstruktioner, flygplansvingar, kompositmaterial till kardborrebandet har skapats med utgångspunkt från förebilder i naturen. Många av de material och konstruktioner som återfinns i naturen har åtråvärda egenskaper som är svåra att erhålla i syntetiska matrial med traditionell teknik. Även om vi i flera fall kan härma sammansättningen och formen blir resultatet inte nödvändigtvis det samma. Den största skillnaden mellan syntetiska material och material producerade av levande organismer är hur deras komponenter sinsemellan är organiserade och sammansatta. I syntetiska material är komponenterna ofta inbördes mer eller mindre slumpvis ordnade medan de i biologiska material är organiserade med en oerhörd precision som sträcker sig ända ned på molekyl- och atomnivå. Naturens byggstenar har genom evolutionens gång förfinats för att spontant kunna organisera sig och bilda komplexa material  och strukturer. Denna process, som styrs genom att många svaga krafter inom och mellan byggstenarna samverkar, kallas ofta för självorganisering och är en förutsättning för allt liv. Självorganisering har också blivit en allt viktigare metod inom nanotekniken för att konstruera material och strukturer med nanometerprecision.

I den här avhandlingen beskrivs en typ av självorganiserande material där byggstenarna utgörs av nanometerstora guldpartiklar och syntetiska proteiner. De syntetiska proteinerna är designade för att efterlikna naturliga biomolekyler och antar en välbestämd tredimensionell struktur när två av dem interagerar med varandra. Denna interaktion är mycket specifik men kan styras genom att variera kemiska parametrar som surhet och jonstyrka vilket ger en möjlighet att påverka och kontrollera proteinernas struktur. Proteinerna har vidare modifierats för att spontant organisera sig till fibrer som är flera mikrometer långa men endast några nanometer tjocka. Proteinfibrer utgör en mycket viktig typ av strukturer i biologiska system och finns i alltifrån spindelväv till muskler. Syntetiska proteinfibrer är därför både ett intressant modellsystem och ett material med många potentiellt intressanta användningsområden.

Genom att fästa de syntetiska proteinerna på ytan av guldnanopartiklar går interaktionerna mellan partiklarna att kontrollera på samma sätt som interaktionerna mellan proteinerna. Krafterna mellan proteinerna och interaktionerna involverade i proteinernas veckning har använts för att reversibelt aggregera och organisera nanopartiklarna. Ett antal olika byggstenar har studerats och utvecklats till något som liknar ett mycket enkelt nano-Lego, som på en given signal spontant bygger ihop sig eller trillar isär.

Guldnanopartiklar är intressanta eftersom de är stabila och lätta att modifiera kemiskt men också på grund av deras optiska egenskaper som ger dem en ovanligt vacker vinröd färg. Färgen uppstår på grund av partiklarnas ringa storlek och varierar naturligt med egenskaperna hos den omgivande miljön. Detta gör det enkelt att studera hur partiklarna interagerar eftersom de byter färg när de närmar sig varandra, men gör dem också intressanta för sensortillämpningar. En enkel och robust sensor beskrivs i avhandlingen där syntetiska proteiner, speciellt utformade för att upptäcka och binda andra molekyler, har fästs på nanopartiklarna. Med partiklarnas hjälp går det att med blotta ögat detektera ett mänskligt protein i koncentrationer under ett tusendels gram per liter. En tidig diagnos av sjukdomstillstånd kan i de flesta fall avsevärt underlätta behandlingen och behovet av enkla sensorer för att bestämma närvaro och koncentration av medicinskt intressanta molekyler är därför mycket stort.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2008. 74 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1207
Keyword
Gold nanoparticle, polypeptide, helix-loop-helix, four-helix bundle, self-assembly, folding
National Category
Other Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15124 (URN)978-91-7393-818-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-03, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-10-16 Created: 2008-10-16 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
2. Polypeptide functionalized gold nanoparticles for bioanalytical applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polypeptide functionalized gold nanoparticles for bioanalytical applications
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Detection strategies that allow for simple, rapid, cost efficient and sensitive monitoring of proteins and their interactions with biomolecules are of great importance in drug development and diagnostics. This thesis describes the development of bioanalytical applications based on the tunable self-assembly of gold nanoparticles functionalized with a de novo designed polypeptide. Strategies for protein affinity sensing and for detection of several fundamentally important biological processes have been investigated, including Zn2+-mediated coordination between polypeptides and low molecular weight chelants and protease and phosphatase activity.

A Zn2+ responsive synthetic polypeptide designed to fold into a helix-loop-helix motif and dimerize into a four-helix bundle has been used to control the stability and self-assembly of gold nanoparticles. This polypeptide has a high negative net charge at neutral pH as a consequence of its many glutamic acid residues, efficiently preventing folding and dimerization due to charge repulsion. Zn2+ coordination provides a means to trigger folding and dimerization at neutral pH. The polypeptide can be readily attached to gold nanoparticles via a cysteine residue in the loop region, retaining its folding properties and responsiveness to Zn2+. The polypeptide functionalized gold nanoparticles display excellent colloidal stability but aggregate reversibly after addition of millimolar concentrations of Zn2+. Aggregates are dense with a defined interparticle distance corresponding to the size of the four-helix bundle, resulting in a distinct red shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance band.

Three completely different strategies for colorimetric biosensing have been developed, all being based on the same responsive hybrid nanomaterial. In the first strategy a synthetic receptor was co-immobilized on the gold nanoparticles together with the Zn2+ responsive polypeptide. Protein analyte binding to the receptor could be detected as this interaction sterically prevented aggregation induced by Zn2+. In the second strategy the reduction in colloidal stability caused by specific proteolytic cleavage of the immobilized polypeptide was exploited to monitor the enzymatic activity. The third strategy utilized the sensitivity of the system to small variations in Zn2+ concentration. The presence of low molecular weight chelants was found to influence the mode of aggregation, both by sequestering Zn2+ and through the formation of ternary complexes involving the polypeptides, which prevented dimerization and thus aggregation. This approach was further developed into a generic concept for phosphatase detection exploiting the different affinity of enzyme substrates and reaction products for Zn2+.

The flexibility of the different detection schemes enables detection of a large number of analytes by exploiting the tunable stability of the nanoparticles and the possibilities to effectively decouple the recognition event and the nanoparticle stability modulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 62 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1598
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106719 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-106719 (DOI)978-91-7519-321-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-12, Plank, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved

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Aili, DanielSelegård, RobertEnander, KarinLiedberg, Bo

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