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Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Hip Replacement Surgery
Departments of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Örebro Medical Center Hospital.
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Örebro Medical Center Hospital.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Örebro Medical Center Hospital.
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Örebro Medical Center Hospital.
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2000 (English)In: Anesthesia and Analgesia, ISSN 0003-2999, E-ISSN 1526-7598, Vol. 91, no 5, 1124-1130 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intraoperatively administered, tranexamic acid (TA) does not reduce bleeding in total hip replacement (THR). Therefore, its prophylactic use was attempted in the present study because this has been shown to be more effective in cardiac surgery. We investigated 40 patients undergoing THR in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. Twenty patients received TA given in two bolus doses of 10 mg/kg each, the first just before surgical incision and the second 3 h later. In addition, a continuous infusion of TA, 1.0 mg · kg−1 · h−1 for 10 h, was given after the first bolus dose. The remaining 20 patients formed a control group. Both groups used preoperative autologous blood donation and intraoperative autotransfusion. Intraoperative bleeding was significantly less (P = 0.001) in the TA group compared with the control group (630 ± 220 mL vs 850 ± 260 mL). Postoperative drainage bleeding was correspondingly less (P = 0.001) (520 ± 280 vs 920 ± 410 mL). Up to 10 h postoperatively, plasma D-dimer concentration was halved in the TA group compared with the control group. One patient in each group had an ultrasound-verified late deep vein thrombosis. In conclusion, we found TA, administrated before surgical incision, to be efficient in reducing bleeding during THR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. 91, no 5, 1124-1130 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79960OAI: diva2:544832
Available from: 2012-08-16 Created: 2012-08-16 Last updated: 2012-08-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Perioperative blood saving techniques with coagulative evaluation in orthopedic surgery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perioperative blood saving techniques with coagulative evaluation in orthopedic surgery
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Allogeneic blood transfusion, although often needed in major surgery with large per-and postoperative bleeding, is fraught with dangers such as clerical mishandling, immunosuppression and blood-borne infections. It is therefore important to find ways to avoid allogeneic blood transfusion by means of less bleeding, better tolerance of the bleeding or alternatives to allogeneic blood.

Aim of the study: To evaluate different methods of blood saving in total hip replacement (THR) surgery, their efficacy, and the possible risks, especially hyper- and hypocoagulation.

Patients and methods: A total of 179 patients and eight volunteers were included in five studies. All patients were operated by primary TI-IR. Blood loss, allogeneic transfusions, coagulation parameters (platelets, bleeding time, fibrinogen, APTT, PT, soluble fibrin, TAT), fibrinolysis parameters (D-dimer, tPA, PAT, PAP), functional coagulation analysis (Sonoclot, TEG) and frequency of deep vein thrombosis (ultrasonography) were investigated according to the different study regimes. Thitiy patients undergoing predonation of autologous blood (PAD) with or without autotransfusion were compared with a control group of 15 patients without blood saving treatment. Fatty patients undergoing immediate prcopcrative platelet rich plasma (PRP) harvest and autotransfusion were compared with 40 patients undergoing PAD and autotransfusion. The spontaneous and induced activation of the platelets in the blood of20 patients undergoing THR with or without additive PRP harvest were also studied with flow cytometry. The efficacy of tranexamic acid (TA) as a blood saving method was examined in a study including 40 patients. As Sonoclot coagulation analysis was the single most important coagulation analysis during the studies, a methodological examination including eight volunteers was done for the instrument.

Results and discussion: If no blood saving method is used there is a very strong possibility of allogeneic blood transfusion (100% of the patients studied needed blood). Autotransfusion is not sutlicient as a single transfusion reducing method (53% patients studied still needed blood). PAD+ autotransfusion gives sufficient reduction in allogeneic blood transfusion (5-27% of patients in tlte different studies needed blood) but needs prcopcrativc planning, and PAD is not accepted by Jehovah's Witnesses. PRP reduces allogeneic blood transfusion as effectively as predonation of two units of blood (15% of studied patients needed blood) and can replace PAD in unplanned operations and for Jehovah's Witnesses. The majority of platelets are in a resting state during THR and PRP harvest. PRP harvest did not affect the degree of platelet activation, but there were great individual differences between patients (spontaneous activated platelets, i.e. presenting P-Selektin during the operation, between 1 %-23%). Most of the platelets in the c-PRP were not activated at the time ofretransfusion but were easily activated upon stimulation with the physiological activator ADP. TA therapy started prcoperatively is easily performed and reduces bleeding by 35%, probably by significantly reducing induced fibrinolysis perioperatively. During primary THR surgety there was an early postoperative hypocoagulation during the first postoperative day, with a hypercoagulation later postoperativcly, and an observed maximal value about 7 to 10 days postopcrativcly that was still evident three weeks postopcratively. Per- and early postoperatively there was also a marked fibrinolysis that was normalized on day 1 postoperatively. Six of the 120 patients examined with ultrasonography had DVTs, all after the first week postoperatively. There were no differences in the frequency of detected DVTs, irrespective oftrcahnent with PAD, PRP or TA. Sonoclot coagulation analysis was found to be a valuable tool in detecting hypercoagulability but was restricted by a high variability. This variability can be lowered by a dual machine setting, repetitive analysis and directly analyzed arterial samples.

Conclusion: The combination ofperioperative autotransfusion and PAD is effective in preventing allogeneic blood transfusions during primary THR. PRP harvest is as effective as PAD and is useful for patients who cannot donate blood. A minor propotiion of the patient's platelets are activated during the surgery irrespective of whether or not there is PRP harvest. TA therapy started preoperatively reduces fibrinolysis during the day of surgery and reduces per-and postoperative bleeding by 35%. Primmy THR surgery gives rise to an initial hypocoagulation followed by a hypercoagulation with an observed maximal value about 7 to 10 days postoperatively which is still evident three weeks postoperatively. However, the observed frequency of thrombosis was low (5%) in the 120 patients examined with utrasonography. Sonoclot analysis is an efficient tool for following this hypercoagulation. The high variability of the method can be reduced with a dual machine setting, repetitive analysis and directly analyzed arterial samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2000. 58 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 653
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-27473 (URN)12127 (Local ID)91-7219-754-4 (ISBN)12127 (Archive number)12127 (OAI)
Public defence
2000-12-08, Wilandersalen, Regionssjukhuset, Örebro, 09:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2012-08-16Bibliographically approved

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