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Shoulder region of the rat: Anatomy and fiber composition of some suprascapular nerve branches
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
1994 (English)In: The Anatomical Record, ISSN 1932-8486, Vol. 239, no 3, 332-342 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The pathophysiology of chronic supraspinatus tendinitis is not fully understood. This may be due to the scarcity of experimental studies on this issue.

Methods: In search for a system suitable for experimental analysis, the present study describes the relevant gross anatomy of the rat shoulder region (dissection), and examines the fiber composition of relevant suprascapular nerve branches (electron microscopy, selective denervations).

Results: The rat shoulder region is similar to the human shoulder in terms of gross anatomy. The average suprascapular nerve (SSC) is derived mainly from the spinal cord segment C5 and contains 3,435 axons, 74% of which are unmyelinated. The supraspinatus branch (SSP) contains 627 fibers. Of the SSP fibers, 52% are myelinated, including 32% motor and 20% sensory axons. Of the C-fibers in the SSP 16% are sympathetic efferents and 32% are sensory. Many of the latter disappear after neonatal capsaicin treatment. The SSC emits a subacromial articular branch (ART), with some 260 axons, about 90% of which are unmyelinated. The myelinated ART fibers are sensory, and of the unmyelinated ones about 24% are sympathetic efferents and 66% are afferents. The latter resist neonatal capsaicin treatment.

Conclusions: In view of the anatomy of the supraspinatus muscle, of the subacromial space, and of relevant nerves, the rat shoulder should be appropriate for experimental studies on inflammatory conditions in the subacromial space.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1994. Vol. 239, no 3, 332-342 p.
Keyword [en]
Rat, Shoulder region, Gross anatomy, Subacromial space, Supraspinatus muscle, Suprascapular nerve, Fiber composition, Electron microscopy
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80033DOI: 10.1002/ar.1092390311OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-80033DiVA: diva2:545084
Available from: 2012-08-17 Created: 2012-08-17 Last updated: 2012-08-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Subacromial inflammation: Clinical and experimental studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subacromial inflammation: Clinical and experimental studies
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Shoulder pain and disability are common clinical problems. One major cause is subacromial inflammation and impingement of the supraspinatus tendon. These patients are usually offered conservative treatment or arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD). However, in some patients pain and a deficient shoulder function persist in spite of conservative and surgical treatment. This reflects the fact that the pathophysiology of this important disease is not fully understood. The general aim of the present thesis was to generate new lmowledge contributing to the understanding of subacromial inflammation through a combination of clinical and experimental studies.

Ketoprofen is a non-steroid antiinflammatory drug with effects on peripherally as well as centrally generated pain. In a randomized, double-blind, prospective study on impingement patients treated with ASD, postoperative administration of ketoprofen showed short-term, but not long-term positive effects on pain, range of movement and satisfaction.

The status of the rotator cuff was found not to influence the postoperative results after ASD. Patients with an intact, partially ruptured or totally ruptured (<2cm) supraspinatus tendon did equally well, both 3 and 6 years after surgery. The results suggest that the presence of an inflamed bursa is more important for the symptoms than the cuff lesion.

In search for an experimental model we found that the shoulder region of the rat shows macroanatomical similarities to the human shoulder. Analysis of the innervation of the rat shoulder showed that the suprascapular nerve and some branches projecting to the subacromial space contain numerous C- and Ao-fibers. Many of these appeared to be polymodally nociceptive units or postganglionic sympathetic units as revealed by capsaicin and chemical sympathectomy. Such fibers are relevant for inflanunatory states.

In the normal rat substance P- (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide- (CGRP) immunoreactive putative nociceptive fibers and neuropeptide Y- (NPY) and tyrosine hydroxylase- (TH) immunoreactive putative sympathetic fibers were widely distributed in the subacromial space. After induction of an acute subacromial inflammation with carrageenan, the presence of SP- and/or CGRP-immunoreactive fibers in the supraspinatus tendon was increased, with a maximum at two weeks. The results of labeling with the growth-associated protein GAP-43 indicated a de novo sprouting of nociceptive fibers in the tendon. But, radioimmunoassay measurements showed that the content of SP, CGRP and NPY in the supraspinatus tendon were normal or subnormal.

These results called for examination of subacromial tissue biopsies from  impingement patients. Innnunohistochemical analysis showed an increase of SP- and/or CGRP- immunoreactive nerve fibers and of NPY-immunoreactive nerve fibers in tendon tissue. The presence of corresponding neuropeptides was also elevated, as determined by RIA. The analysis also revealed an increase of SP and/or CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers and an elevated concentration of corresponding neuropeptides in bursal tissue.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2001. 87 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 658
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25660 (URN)10036 (Local ID)91-721-9759-5 (ISBN)10036 (Archive number)10036 (OAI)
Public defence
2001-02-16, Berzeliussalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2012-08-17Bibliographically approved

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Norlin, RolfHoe-Hansen, CarstenHildebrand, Claes

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