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Emissions of Some Organochlorine Compounds in Experimental Aluminum Degassing with Hexachloroethane
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Department of Occupational Health, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden and Center of Study and Prevention of Cancer, Florence, Italy.
1997 (English)In: Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1047-322X, Vol. 12, no 3, 178-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Degassing agents based on hexachloroethane (HCE) are used to remove hydrogen gas from molten aluminum, particularly in foundries and remelting plants. Previously considered fairly innocuous, recent studies of the emissions from this process have shown high yields of some toxic organochlorine compounds. To determine a wider spectrum of such compounds, a series of experimental degassings was carried out in a small foundry. Aluminum was melted at 740°C in an electric furnace equipped with a ventilated exhaust hood, and degassing was carried out with 0.12 percent (w/w) HCE. Particulate, condensed liquid, and gas phase samples of the emissions were collected in the exhaust suction duct and analyzed with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, as well as hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbons were determined. In relation to HCE, the major organochlorine compounds in the fume were hexachlorobenzene (4300 μg/g), octachlorostyrene (780 μg/g), and unreacted HCE (550 μg/g). The emissions of these substances were substantially higher than for chlorinated dibenzodioxins (0.034 μg/g) and dibenzofurans (0.36 μg/g). The emission of inorganic compounds was dominated by hydrogen chloride (330,000 μg/g). These results indicate that HCE-based degassing is a source of a complex mixture of inorganic and organochlorine compounds and suggest that alternative degassing techniques should be used. Alternatively, environmental emissions should be substantially reduced by using proper ventilation and filter techniques, and workplace exposure should be closely monitored, tentatively by measurements of hexachlorobenzene and hydrogen chloride.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1997. Vol. 12, no 3, 178-183 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80073DOI: 10.1080/1047322X.1997.10389485OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-80073DiVA: diva2:545379
Available from: 2012-08-20 Created: 2012-08-20 Last updated: 2012-08-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chemical exposures, biological monitoring and cancer risks in Swedish aluminium foundries and remelting plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical exposures, biological monitoring and cancer risks in Swedish aluminium foundries and remelting plants
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In aluminium foundries and remelting plants, a wide range of chemical agents are formed and emitted, including some highly toxic organochlorine compounds. This thesis explores emissions and exposures, as well as worker risk of porphyria and cancer.

During addition of hexachloroethane (HCE) for degassing of the melt, the major findings of organochlorine compounds were hexachlorobenzene (4,300 μg/g HCE) and octachlorostyrene (780 μg/g HCE).

In sand, die- and static-die casting aluminium foundries, the total dust concentrations varied up to 93 mg/m3. The aluminium exposures were generally low (< 0.5 mg/m3). For crystalline quartz, 0.1 mg/m3 was exceeded only occasionally. The levels of minor alloy metals including lead, were low (<0.01 mg/m3). At different core production methods, high levels of dimethylethylarnine, aniline and furfuryl alcohol were observed. In die-casting, 33% of the mineral oil mist levels exceeded 1 mg/m3.

For smelters, the use of HCE as degassing agent, caused increased plasma levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) compared to controls. A difference in porphyrins, mainly attributed to enhanced concentrations of coproporphyrins, especially coproporphyrin III, was also noted.

In a cohort study of 6,454 workers from seven aluminium foundries and three remelting plants, no overall increased risk for cancer among male and female workers was found. Elevated risks were however seen for lung cancer, anorectal and sinonasal cancer. For sand casting workers, a statistically significant increase in lung cancer morbidity was seen for the long-term employed workers.

Based on a statistical model, cumulative total dust and crystalline quartz mg/m3 * years were assessed for 46 cases and 322 controls in a nested case-control study within the cohort. A non-significant increase in the relative risk was observed with increasing dose. The odds ratio for dust was 2.2 for the high exposure group (>29 mg/m3 * year). A similar trend was seen for crystalline quartz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2001. 61 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 696
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28651 (URN)13807 (Local ID)91-7219-987-3 (ISBN)13807 (Archive number)13807 (OAI)
Public defence
2001-07-01, Aulan, B-huset, Regionsjukhuset, Örebro, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-08-20Bibliographically approved

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