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Hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene in plasma of aluminium foundry workers using hexachloroethane for degassing
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Department of NBC Defence, National Defence Research Establishment, Umeå, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
1997 (English)In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 54, 613-618 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To study the load of selected organochlorine compounds in the blood of aluminium foundry workers who use hexachloroethane as a degassing agent for aluminium and to measure some possible effects on internal organs.

METHODS: Plasma from nine male aluminium foundry workers with past experience of use of hexachloroethane and 18 controls (two controls per exposed case) matched for residence, sex, age, and socioeconomic status was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), (P-HCB), and octachlorostyrene (P-OCS) with low resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serum samples from the same subjects were analysed for standard kidney, pancreas, and liver function variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the triplets retained, a non-parametric test, and linear regression were used for the analysis.

RESULTS: A fourfold increase of mean P-HCB was found among the exposed subjects compared with the controls (313.1 v 66.9 ng/g lipid; P < 0.01; (ANOVA model)). For P-OCS this difference was even larger (54.6 v 0.7 ng/g lipid; P < 0.01). Results were still significant (P < 0.05) with non-parametric testing. Within the exposed group there was a good correlation between the ln P-HCB (r = 0.80) and ln P-OCS (r = 0.91), respectively, with the cumulative number of years of exposure to hexachloroethane. No significant difference in kidney, pancreas, or liver function was found between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Aluminium degassing with hexachloroethane may increase the body burden of selected organochlorine compounds as reflected by HCB and OCS measurements. With the inherent limitations of this investigation no signs of subclinical organ toxicity were found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1997. Vol. 54, 613-618 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80074DOI: 10.1136/oem.54.8.613OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-80074DiVA: diva2:545391
Available from: 2012-08-20 Created: 2012-08-20 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chemical exposures, biological monitoring and cancer risks in Swedish aluminium foundries and remelting plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical exposures, biological monitoring and cancer risks in Swedish aluminium foundries and remelting plants
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In aluminium foundries and remelting plants, a wide range of chemical agents are formed and emitted, including some highly toxic organochlorine compounds. This thesis explores emissions and exposures, as well as worker risk of porphyria and cancer.

During addition of hexachloroethane (HCE) for degassing of the melt, the major findings of organochlorine compounds were hexachlorobenzene (4,300 μg/g HCE) and octachlorostyrene (780 μg/g HCE).

In sand, die- and static-die casting aluminium foundries, the total dust concentrations varied up to 93 mg/m3. The aluminium exposures were generally low (< 0.5 mg/m3). For crystalline quartz, 0.1 mg/m3 was exceeded only occasionally. The levels of minor alloy metals including lead, were low (<0.01 mg/m3). At different core production methods, high levels of dimethylethylarnine, aniline and furfuryl alcohol were observed. In die-casting, 33% of the mineral oil mist levels exceeded 1 mg/m3.

For smelters, the use of HCE as degassing agent, caused increased plasma levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) compared to controls. A difference in porphyrins, mainly attributed to enhanced concentrations of coproporphyrins, especially coproporphyrin III, was also noted.

In a cohort study of 6,454 workers from seven aluminium foundries and three remelting plants, no overall increased risk for cancer among male and female workers was found. Elevated risks were however seen for lung cancer, anorectal and sinonasal cancer. For sand casting workers, a statistically significant increase in lung cancer morbidity was seen for the long-term employed workers.

Based on a statistical model, cumulative total dust and crystalline quartz mg/m3 * years were assessed for 46 cases and 322 controls in a nested case-control study within the cohort. A non-significant increase in the relative risk was observed with increasing dose. The odds ratio for dust was 2.2 for the high exposure group (>29 mg/m3 * year). A similar trend was seen for crystalline quartz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2001. 61 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 696
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28651 (URN)13807 (Local ID)91-7219-987-3 (ISBN)13807 (Archive number)13807 (OAI)
Public defence
2001-07-01, Aulan, B-huset, Regionsjukhuset, Örebro, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-08-20Bibliographically approved

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