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Cancer morbidity in workers at aluminum foundries and secondary aluminum smelters
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
1997 (English)In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 32, no 5, 467-477 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a Swedish cohort of workers (n = 6,454) from seven aluminum foundries and three secondary aluminum (scrap) smelters there was no overall excess risk of cancer among male or female workers less than 85 years of age (males: 325 observed cases, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91–1.13; females: 22 cases, SIR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.60–1.44). In male workers, however, significantly elevated risk estimates were observed for cancer of the lung (51 cases; SIR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.11–1.96), anorectal cancer (33 cases; SIR 2.13, 95%CI = 1.47–2.99), and sinonasal cancer (4 cases; SIR = 4.70, 95%CI = 1.28–12.01). There was no increase of urinary bladder or liver cancer. Lung cancer risks were highest in workers with a short duration of employment (<5 years) suggesting determinants of risk related to socioeconomic factors rather than the occupational environment under study, but there were also indications of a lung cancer hazard from sand casting of aluminum for 10 years or more (SIR = 2.10, 95%CI = 1.01–3.87). The increase in anorectal cancer could not be etiologically related to occupational determinants of risk. Sand casting of aluminum aside, the cancer risk in secondary aluminum smelting seems to be lower than in primary aluminum smelting and in iron and steel founding, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1997. Vol. 32, no 5, 467-477 p.
Keyword [en]
aluminum, anorectal cancer, bladder cancer, cancer epidemiology, foundry workers, hexachlorobenzene, hexachloroethane, liver cancer, lung cancer, organochlorine compounds, sinonasal cancer
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80075DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199711)32:5<467::AID-AJIM6>3.0.CO;2-POAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-80075DiVA: diva2:545403
Available from: 2012-08-20 Created: 2012-08-20 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chemical exposures, biological monitoring and cancer risks in Swedish aluminium foundries and remelting plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical exposures, biological monitoring and cancer risks in Swedish aluminium foundries and remelting plants
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In aluminium foundries and remelting plants, a wide range of chemical agents are formed and emitted, including some highly toxic organochlorine compounds. This thesis explores emissions and exposures, as well as worker risk of porphyria and cancer.

During addition of hexachloroethane (HCE) for degassing of the melt, the major findings of organochlorine compounds were hexachlorobenzene (4,300 μg/g HCE) and octachlorostyrene (780 μg/g HCE).

In sand, die- and static-die casting aluminium foundries, the total dust concentrations varied up to 93 mg/m3. The aluminium exposures were generally low (< 0.5 mg/m3). For crystalline quartz, 0.1 mg/m3 was exceeded only occasionally. The levels of minor alloy metals including lead, were low (<0.01 mg/m3). At different core production methods, high levels of dimethylethylarnine, aniline and furfuryl alcohol were observed. In die-casting, 33% of the mineral oil mist levels exceeded 1 mg/m3.

For smelters, the use of HCE as degassing agent, caused increased plasma levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) compared to controls. A difference in porphyrins, mainly attributed to enhanced concentrations of coproporphyrins, especially coproporphyrin III, was also noted.

In a cohort study of 6,454 workers from seven aluminium foundries and three remelting plants, no overall increased risk for cancer among male and female workers was found. Elevated risks were however seen for lung cancer, anorectal and sinonasal cancer. For sand casting workers, a statistically significant increase in lung cancer morbidity was seen for the long-term employed workers.

Based on a statistical model, cumulative total dust and crystalline quartz mg/m3 * years were assessed for 46 cases and 322 controls in a nested case-control study within the cohort. A non-significant increase in the relative risk was observed with increasing dose. The odds ratio for dust was 2.2 for the high exposure group (>29 mg/m3 * year). A similar trend was seen for crystalline quartz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2001. 61 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 696
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28651 (URN)13807 (Local ID)91-7219-987-3 (ISBN)13807 (Archive number)13807 (OAI)
Public defence
2001-07-01, Aulan, B-huset, Regionsjukhuset, Örebro, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-08-20Bibliographically approved

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