liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Exposure classification for epidemiologic purposes of total dust and crystalline quartz in Swedish aluminium foundries: application in a nested case-control study on lung cancer
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Department of Environmental Health, Stockhohn County Council and Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockhohn, Sweden.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In a recent cohort study in aluminium foundries and remelting plants an unexpectedly high risk of lung cancer was found in workers in sand foundries. On the basis of present and, historical measurement data, we developed a statistical model for exposure to total dust and crystalline quartz for different jobs and time periods. Cumulative dose estimates of total dust and crystalline quartz were calculated and used in a nested case-control study in the cohort.

From the cohort of foundry workers (n=4,435), 51 cases oflung cancer were identified. After exclusion of cases and controls with nonspecific job titles, 46 cases remained. The final analysis was performed on 31 cases and 233 controls with one year or more of employment. Measurement data for total dust and crystalline quartz had been previously collected in each company in an industrial hygiene survey, parallel to the cohort study. Historical measurement data from the 1960s and onwards were added, totalling, 207 total dust and 103 crystalline quartz exposure observations. Regression models, using the determinants of job title, timeperiod, type of foundry and size of production, were developed for assessing historical total dust and crystalline quartz air concentrations. These estimates were used to calculate individual cumulative exposure in the case-control study.

In the multiple linear regression analysis, the determinants explained much of the variations in dust level (r2=0.58). The explained variation in crystalline quartz was much lower (r2=0.13). The regression coefficients for the type of foundry, time-period, and size of production were statistically significant for total dust. The maximum predicted dust and quartz levels were 10 mg/m3 and 0.07 mg/m3, respectively. On the basis of the regression analysis, grouped data about the variables type of found1y, time-period and size of production were used in the final model to calculate cumulative dust exposures. However, the type of foundry was excluded as regards crystalline quartz. The calculated cumulative dust and quartz exposures averaged 23 mg/m3*year and 0.31mg/m3*year, respectively. The odds ratios, in the nested case-control study, showed no significant dose-response trends for both dust at1d ctystalline quartz: for exposure to dust, the odds ratios increased from 1 (reference) to 1.3 (95% CI 0.41-4.3), and to 2.2 (95% CI 0.73-6.5) by increasing cumulative exposures, as assessed in two different categories, and for exposure to quartz from I (reference) to 1.2 (95% Cl 0.37-3.9), and to 2.3 (95% CI 0.79-6.8).

Despite the moderate historical levels of total dust and crystalline quartz assessed for this cohort of aluminium foundry workers, based on a limited exposure data set, we found a tendency to a dose-response for lung cancer. Although data are limited, these findings give some support to the causative role of (quartz) dust in the previously observed high risk of lung cancer in this cohort.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80076OAI: diva2:545408
Available from: 2012-08-20 Created: 2012-08-20 Last updated: 2012-08-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chemical exposures, biological monitoring and cancer risks in Swedish aluminium foundries and remelting plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical exposures, biological monitoring and cancer risks in Swedish aluminium foundries and remelting plants
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In aluminium foundries and remelting plants, a wide range of chemical agents are formed and emitted, including some highly toxic organochlorine compounds. This thesis explores emissions and exposures, as well as worker risk of porphyria and cancer.

During addition of hexachloroethane (HCE) for degassing of the melt, the major findings of organochlorine compounds were hexachlorobenzene (4,300 μg/g HCE) and octachlorostyrene (780 μg/g HCE).

In sand, die- and static-die casting aluminium foundries, the total dust concentrations varied up to 93 mg/m3. The aluminium exposures were generally low (< 0.5 mg/m3). For crystalline quartz, 0.1 mg/m3 was exceeded only occasionally. The levels of minor alloy metals including lead, were low (<0.01 mg/m3). At different core production methods, high levels of dimethylethylarnine, aniline and furfuryl alcohol were observed. In die-casting, 33% of the mineral oil mist levels exceeded 1 mg/m3.

For smelters, the use of HCE as degassing agent, caused increased plasma levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) compared to controls. A difference in porphyrins, mainly attributed to enhanced concentrations of coproporphyrins, especially coproporphyrin III, was also noted.

In a cohort study of 6,454 workers from seven aluminium foundries and three remelting plants, no overall increased risk for cancer among male and female workers was found. Elevated risks were however seen for lung cancer, anorectal and sinonasal cancer. For sand casting workers, a statistically significant increase in lung cancer morbidity was seen for the long-term employed workers.

Based on a statistical model, cumulative total dust and crystalline quartz mg/m3 * years were assessed for 46 cases and 322 controls in a nested case-control study within the cohort. A non-significant increase in the relative risk was observed with increasing dose. The odds ratio for dust was 2.2 for the high exposure group (>29 mg/m3 * year). A similar trend was seen for crystalline quartz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2001. 61 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 696
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28651 (URN)13807 (Local ID)91-7219-987-3 (ISBN)13807 (Archive number)13807 (OAI)
Public defence
2001-07-01, Aulan, B-huset, Regionsjukhuset, Örebro, 13:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-08-20Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

By organisation
Occupational and Environmental MedicineFaculty of Health Sciences
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 13 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link