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Decomposition and phase transformation in TiCrAlN thin coatings
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2286-5588
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2012 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 30, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phase transformations and mechanisms that yield enhanced high temperature mechanical properties of metastable solid solutions of cubic (c)-(TixCryAlz)N coatings are discussed in this paper. Coatings grown by reactive arc evaporation technique with metal composition range y<17 at. % and 45<z<62 at. % are studied and compared with the parent TiAlN material system. The coatings exhibit age hardening up to 1000 ºC which is higher compared to what is observed for TiAlN. In addition, the coatings show a less pronounced hardness decrease when hexagonal (h)-AlN is formed compared to TiAlN. The improved thermal stability is discussed in terms of a lowered coherency stress and a lowered enthalpy of mixing due to the addition of Cr, which results in improved functionality in the working temperature range of 850-1000 ºC of for example cutting tools. Upon annealing up to 1400 ºC the coatings decompose into c-TiN, bcc-Cr and h-AlN. The decomposition takes place via several intermediate phases, c-CrAlN, c-TiCrN and hexagonal (β)-Cr2N. The microstructure  evolution investigated at different stages of spinodal decomposition and phase transformation is correlated to the thermal response and mechanical hardness of the coatings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Vacuum Society , 2012. Vol. 30, no 6
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80179DOI: 10.1116/1.4757953OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-80179DiVA: diva2:546051
Note

On the day of the defence day the status of this article was: Manuscript

Available from: 2012-08-22 Created: 2012-08-22 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mechanical properties and thermal stability of reactive arc evaporated Ti-Cr-Al-N coatings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical properties and thermal stability of reactive arc evaporated Ti-Cr-Al-N coatings
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This licentiate thesis reports experimental and theoretical work on the high temperature mechanical properties and the thermal stability of cubic (c)-(Ti-Cr-Al)1-N1 coatings. It is demonstrated that it is possible to tailor and improve the properties of hard nitride coatings by different degrees of multicomponent alloying. When Cr is added to Ti-Al-N the coatings exhibit age hardening up to 1000 ºC which is higher compared to what is observed for Ti-Al-N. In addition, the coatings show a less pronounced hardness decrease when hexagonal (h)-Al-N is formed compared to Ti-Al-N. The improved thermal stability is discussed in terms of a lowered coherency stress and a lowered enthalpy of mixing due to the addition of Cr. When Ti is added to Cr-Al-N the formation and growth of the detrimental h-Al-N phase is suppressed and delayed improving the mechanical properties. This is discussed in terms of kinetic effects where the Ti atoms obstruct the Al diffusion and consequently the growth of h-Al-N precipitates. The microstructure evolution investigated at different stages of spinodal decomposition, coarsening and phase transformations are correlated to the thermal responses and the mechanical hardness of the coatings. Upon annealing up to 1400 ºC the coatings decompose into c-TiN, bcc-Cr and h-AlN. The decomposition takes place via several intermediate phases, c-CrAlN, c-TiCrN and hexagonal (β)-Cr2N.

   The oxidation resistance of (Tix-Cry-Al60)1-N1 is also investigated and presented for different x/y ratios. The results show that it is possible to generate coatings with both excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance improving the functionality in the working temperature range of 850-1100 ºC of for example cutting tools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. 37 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1546
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79579 (URN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2012:31 (Local ID)978-91-7519-832-3 (ISBN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2012:31 (Archive number)LIU-TEK-LIC-2012:31 (OAI)
Presentation
2012-09-06, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping University, Linköping, 17:48 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-08-22 Created: 2012-08-09 Last updated: 2014-10-07Bibliographically approved
2. Multicomponent Alloying for Improved Hard Coatings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multicomponent Alloying for Improved Hard Coatings
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Coatings are vital to protect and to increase the productivity of cutting tools in high speed and dry cutting applications. During the cutting operation the temperature may exceed 1000 ºC it is therefore necessary that the coatings withstand high temperatures. A lot of development and research has been carried out during the last 30 years on finding new coating material systems providing enhanced properties such as adhesion, hardness and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. This thesis is based on multicomponent alloying of quaternary transition metal nitride hard coatings with a main focus on Ti-Cr-Al-N coatings. Many different coatings and compositions have been deposited using an industrial scale cathodic arc evaporation deposition system. All deposited coatings contain Al as this element is known to increase the hardness and the oxidation resistance of nitride coatings. The deterioration of the hardness in Al-containing nitride coatings is generally attributed to the transformation of cubic Al-N into hexagonal Al-N and the consequent domain coherency relaxation. This thesis investigates these phenomena on an atomic level providing a deeper understanding of and a way to engineer improved hard nitride coatings. The essence of this thesis is that by adding a third metal to a ternary nitride material system, for example one of the most frequently used Ti-Al-N, it is possible to tune and engineer the thermal stability of the cubic structure and the coherency strain which in turn affects the hardness and the oxidation resistance. The key point is that new intermediate phases in the decomposition process are generated so that the eventual detrimental phases are suppressed and delayed. More specifically, when Cr is added to the Ti-Al-N material system the coatings exhibit an age hardening process up to 1000 ºC caused by spinodal decomposition into coherent TiCr- and AlCr-rich cubic Ti-Cr-Al-N domains. This means that the unstable cubic Ti-Cr-Al-N phase decomposes via yet another unstable cubic Cr-Al-N phase before the detrimental hexagonal transformation of AlN takes place. The hardness is therefore retained up to a higher temperature compared to Ti-Al-N coatings.

By utilizing multicomponent alloying through addition of Ti to Cr-Al-N coatings the hardness is retained after annealing up to 1100 ºC. This is a dramatic improvement compared to Cr-Al-N coatings. Here the Ti addition promotes the competitive spinodal decomposition into TiCr- and Al-enriched domains suppressing the detrimental hexagonal AlN formation.

To investigate the effect of multicomponent alloying for other material systems with different mixing free energies and atomic sizes, Zr-containing, Zr-Cr-Al-N and Zr-Ti-Al-N, quaternary nitride coatings have also been deposited. For high Al- and high Zr-containing coatings the cubic solid solution structure is disrupted into a mix of nano-crystalline hexagonal and cubic phases with significantly lower hardness. The results show that the structure and hardness of these coatings are sensitive to the composition and in order to optimize the hardness and thermal stability the composition has to be fine-tuned. Altogether it is shown that through multicomponent alloying and through the control of the coherency strain it is possible to enhance the hardness and the oxidation resistance compared to the ternary system which may lead to new improved functional hard coatings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 65 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1621
National Category
Physical Sciences Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110684 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-110684 (DOI)978-91-7519-238-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-30, Planck, Fysikhuset, Camus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-09-18 Last updated: 2014-09-22Bibliographically approved

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Forsén, RikardJohansson, MatsOdén, MagnusGhafoor, Naureen

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