Structural Characteristics Determine the Cause of the Low Enzyme Activity of Two Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase Allelic Variants: A Biophysical Characterization of TPMT*2 and TPMT*5
2012 (English)In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 51, no 30, 5912-5920 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is involved in the metabolism of thiopurine drugs used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and inflammatory bowel disease. Thus far, at least 29 variants of the TPMT gene have been described, many of which encode proteins that have low enzyme activity and in some cases become more prone to aggregation and degradation. Here, the two naturally occurring variants, TPMT*2 (Ala80 → Pro) and TPMT*5 (Leu49 → Ser), were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that TPMT*2 was substantially destabilized whereas TPMT*5 showed much greater stability comparable to that of wild-type TPMT (TPMTwt). The extrinsic fluorescent molecule anilinonaphthalene sulfonate (ANS) was used to probe the tertiary structure during thermal denaturation. In contrast to TPMTwt, neither of the variants bound ANS to a large extent. To explore the morphology of the TPMT aggregates, we performed luminescent conjugated oligothiophene staining and showed fibril formation for TPMT*2 and TPMT*5. The differences in the flexibility of TPMTwt, TPMT*2, and TPMT*5 were evaluated in a limited proteolysis experiment to pinpoint stable regions. Even though there is only one amino acid difference between the analyzed TPMT variants, a clear disparity in the cleavage patterns was observed. TPMT*2 displays a protected region in the C-terminus, which differs from TPMTwt, whereas the protected regions in TPMT*5 are located mainly in the N-terminus close to the active site. In conclusion, this in vitro study, conducted to probe structural changes during unfolding of TPMT*2 and TPMT*5, demonstrates that the various causes of the low enzyme activity in vivo could be explained on a molecular level.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2012. Vol. 51, no 30, 5912-5920 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80185DOI: 10.1021/bi300377dISI: 000308262600005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-80185DiVA: diva2:546089
funding agencies|Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation||Swedish Research Council||EMBO||2012-08-222012-08-222015-10-21Bibliographically approved