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Ion mass spectrometry investigations of the discharge during reactive high power pulsed and direct current magnetron sputtering of carbon in Ar and Ar/N-2
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary .
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4898-5115
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 112, no 1, 013305- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ion mass spectrometry was used to investigate discharges formed during high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a graphite target in Ar and Ar/N-2 ambient. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were recorded in time-averaged and time-resolved mode for Ar+, C+, N-2(+), N+, and CxNy+ ions. An increase of N-2 in the sputter gas (keeping the deposition pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and pulse energy constant) results for the HiPIMS discharge in a significant increase in C+, N+, and CN+ ion energies. Ar+, N-2(+), and C2N+ ion energies, in turn, did not considerably vary with the changes in working gas composition. The HiPIMS process showed higher ion energies and fluxes, particularly for C+ ions, compared to DCMS. The time evolution of the plasma species was analyzed for HiPIMS and revealed the sequential arrival of working gas ions, ions ejected from the target, and later during the pulse-on time molecular ions, in particular CN+ and C2N+. The formation of fullerene-like structured CNx thin films for both modes of magnetron sputtering is explained by ion mass-spectrometry results and demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy as well as diffraction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP) , 2012. Vol. 112, no 1, 013305- p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80790DOI: 10.1063/1.4733692ISI: 000306513400018OAI: diva2:548258

Funding Agencies|Hungarian Academy of Sciences||

Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2016-08-31
In thesis
1. Carbon Nitride and Carbon Fluoride Thin Films Prepared by HiPIMS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon Nitride and Carbon Fluoride Thin Films Prepared by HiPIMS
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis focuses on carbon based thin films prepared by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). Carbon nitride (CNx: 0 < x < 0.20) as well as carbon fluoride (CFx: 0.16 < x < 0.35) thin films were synthesized in an industrial deposition chamber by reactive magnetron sputtering of graphite in Ne/N2, Ar/N2, Kr/N2, Ar/CF4, and Ar/C4F8 ambients. In order to increase the understanding of the deposition processes of C in the corresponding reactive gas mixture plasmas, ion mass spectroscopy was carried out. A detailed evaluation of target current and target voltage waveforms was performed when graphite was sputtered in HiPIMS mode. First principle calculations targeting the growth of CFx thin films revealed most probable film forming species as well as CFx film structure defining defects. In order to set different process parameters into relation with thin film properties, the synthesized carbon based thin films were characterized with regards to their chemical composition, chemical bonding, and microstructure. A further aspect was the thin film characterization for possible applications. For this, mainly nanoindentation and contact angle measurements were performed. Theoretical calculations and the results from the characterization of the deposition processes were successfully related to the thin film properties.

The reactive graphite/N2/inert gas HiPIMS discharge yielded high ion energies as well as elevated C+ and N+ abundances. Under such conditions, amorphous CNx thin films with hardnesses of up to 40 GPa were deposited. Elastic, fullerene like CNx thin films, on the other hand, were deposited at increased substrate temperatures in HiPIMS discharges exhibiting moderate ion energies. Here, a pulse assisted chemical sputtering at the target and the substrate was found to support the formation of a fullerene-like microstructure.

CFx thin films were found to have surface energies equivalent to super-hydrophobic materials for x > 0.26 while such films were polymeric in nature accounting for hardnesses below 1 GPa. Whereas, an amorphous structure for carbon-based films with fluorine contents ranging between 16 % and 23 % was observed. For those films, the hardness increased with decreasing fluorine content and ranged between 16 GPa and 4 GPa. The HiPIMS process in fluorinecontaining atmosphere was found to be a powerful tool in order to change the surface properties of carbon based thin films.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. 82 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1512
National Category
Natural Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90912 (URN)978-91-7519-642-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-08, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Available from: 2013-04-08 Created: 2013-04-08 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

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