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Unfavourable Working Conditions for Female GPs: A Comparison between Swedish General Practitioners and District Nurses
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4224-1032
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate gender and occupational differences in the psychosocial work environment among general practitioners (GPs) and district nurses (DNs) in Sweden.

Design: A stratified random sample of general practitioners (n = 566) and district nurses (n= 554) from four county councils in Sweden was selected. The overall participation rate was 83%. A mailed questionnaire including ten items of demographic and work sites characteristics, and 36 items of psychosocial working conditions was used. The questionnaire had been tested concerning validity and reliability. A factor analysis gave five factors: strains and symptoms, professional content, social support at work, workload, and job control.

Results: In total, professional content was the most positively experienced aspect whereas workload was the most negatively. The GPs perceived a higher workload and fewer opportunities to social support at work compared with the DNs. The female GPs scored significantly more unfavourable than both male GPs and female DNs did in four out of the five factors. The female GPs reported a high workload, low job control and fewer opportunities to social support at work. The female DNs also reported a high workload, relatively low job control but a rather strong social support at work.

Conclusion: Female GPs perceive more unfavourable psychosocial working conditions compared with both male GPs and female DNs in the same organisational setting.

Keyword [en]
psychosocial working conditions, primary care, general practitioners, district nurses, females
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81081OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-81081DiVA: diva2:550270
Available from: 2012-09-06 Created: 2012-09-06 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Psychosocial working conditions among general practitioners and district nurses: Organisational, professional and gender aspects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychosocial working conditions among general practitioners and district nurses: Organisational, professional and gender aspects
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis focuses on the psychosocial working conditions shared by general practitioners and district nurses in Sweden, in relation to the personal doctor reform and district nurses' right to prescribe drugs.

First, a questionnaire was compiled and developed through a stepwise development phase, including key informant interviews, literature review, and review of other models and questionnaires used with a similar purpose. The questionnaire developed was used in a pilot study with 42 general practitioners and 39 district nurses. The questionnaire with 78 items in different parts, was tested for construct validity through factor analysis, and for reliability through Cronbach's alpha. It was then used in the main study.

One aim was also to compare perceived changes in working conditions between general practitioners and district nurses during different degrees of implementation of a personal doctor system. A sample of 469 general practitioners and 466 district nurses participated. The cross-sectional design makes it difficult to distinguish the possible direct effects of a personal doctor from other regional differences. However, is it important to note that the personnel in a more far-reaching personal doctor system perceived less favourable psychosocial working conditions than personnel in a more traditional primary care system.

Another aim was to investigate gender and professional differences in the shared psychosocial working conditions. Both general practitioners and district nurses were satisfied with the professional content of their work and experienced rather low or moderate levels of strains -and symptoms. However, female general practitioners perceived the most unfavourable working conditions compared with both male colleagues and female district nurses.

The opinions among general practitioners and district nurses, to district nurses' right to prescribe drugs differed in all aspects studied. District nurses were positive and general practitioners negative. To gain a deeper understanding of the different opinions, six focus group interviews was carried out. The resistance to the refonn had turned into silence. General practitioners and district nurses hardly speak to each other about prescribing. The district nurses were uncertain whether the general practitioners trusted them and made up systems for self-control.

The personnel within a more far-reaching personal doctor system perceived less-favourable psychosocial working conditions compared with personnel in more traditional primary care system. Female general practitioners seem to experience the most unfavourable working conditions. compared with both their male counterparts, and female district nurses. District nurses prescribing highlights professional differences. Quantitative and qualitative data complement each other and give more diverse information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2001. 63 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 669
Keyword
psychosocial working conditions, primary care, general practitioners, district nurses, profession, gender aspects, personal doctor reform, district nurses prescribing
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-27556 (URN)12218 (Local ID)91-7219-962-8 (ISBN)12218 (Archive number)12218 (OAI)
Public defence
2001-05-04, Administrationsbyggnadens aula, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2012-09-06Bibliographically approved

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Wilhelmsson, SusanFoldevi, MatsÅkerlind, IngemarFaresjö, Tomas

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