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Reduced content of cholesterol in caveolae of adipocytes from insulin resistant, obese, and diabetic Zucker fa/fa rats
Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Zucker fa/fa rat has a mutation in the leptin receptor and therefore over-eats and becomes grossly obese. The animal develops insulin resistance and tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the insulin resistance that thls animal model of type 2 diabetes exhibits. We have shown that the insulin receptor is located in caveolae of the plasma membrane and that reduction of caveolar cholesterol content makes adipocytes insulin resistant (Parpal et a., J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001)9670-9678). Here we show that adipocytes from the Zucker fa/fa rat are insulin resistant and that this can be explained by a 50 % lower content of cholesterol in the caveolae compared to lean rats. Moreover, TNFa treatment reduces the caveolar content of cholesterol in normal rat adipocytes. An enhanced production of TNFa may thus reduce caveolar cholesterol levels and make the Zucker fa/fa rat insulin resistant.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81241OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-81241DiVA: diva2:551145
Available from: 2012-09-10 Created: 2012-09-10 Last updated: 2012-09-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mechanisms of insulin signaling and the role of caveolae
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms of insulin signaling and the role of caveolae
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Insulin regulates metabolic as well as mitogenic processes in target cells, involving a large number of mediators of signal transduction. In its role as a growth factor, insulin stimulates cell growth, in a process we demonstrate requires the participation of the Raf-1 kinase.

Caveolae are invaginations of the plasma membrane, involved in signal transduction and intracellular transport of cholesterol. Caveolae are enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and the constituent protein caveolin. Herein we report that the insulin receptor is located in caveolae of plasma membrane from adipocytes. By confocal and electron microscopy we show co-localization of caveolin and the insulin receptor. Additionally, the insulin receptor independently of insulin stimulation is enriched in caveolae isolated by cell fractionation.

Cholesterol depletion has been shown to flatten caveolae and affect processes which occur in these domains. We show that depletion of cholesterol in adipocytes destroys caveolae and inhibits insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 ), without affecting insulin receptor ligand binding or its autophosphorylation. Cholesterol-depleted adipocytes showed a decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and phosphorylation of A TP citrate-lyase. Cholesterol depletion did not affect insulin's effect on the MAPK kinases ERK 1/2. She, which has been described to mediate an alternative pathway to that mediated by IRS-1 for insulin mitogenic regulation, was not involved in the regulation of the MAP kinases by insulin in adipocytes. We conclude that some other mediators which are not dependent on caveolae integrity must exist for regulation of this pathway.

The effects of cholesterol depletion on caveolae and insulin signaling prompted us to study caveolae in models of insulin resistance. We show that adipocytes from the obese and insulin resistant Zucker fa/fa rats have reduced amounts of cholesterol in caveolae compared with their lean littermates. Adipocytes of Zucker fa/fa rats have been shown to express high levels of TNF-α. We demonstrate that TNF-α treatment lowers the amount of cholesterol in caveolae in adipocytes from normal rats.

The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that insulin signaling originates in caveolae invaginations of the plasma membrane where the insulin receptor is located. Caveolae are required for certain metabolic effects of insulin but not for activation of the MAP kinase pathway, a scenario similar to what is found in cases of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, alteration of the amount of cholesterol or caveolae leads to insulin resistance, suggesting that caveolae play a central role in insulin resistance and diabetes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2001. 45 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 684
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25698 (URN)10074 (Local ID)91-7219-974-1 (ISBN)10074 (Archive number)10074 (OAI)
Public defence
2001-06-08, Berzeliussalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2012-09-10Bibliographically approved

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Karlsson, MargaretaStrålfors, Peter

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